JOURNAL OF SOCIAL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT <p>Journal of Social Research Development (JSRD)</p> Asian Research Development en-US JOURNAL OF SOCIAL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT 2788-8320 UNLOCKING CONSUMER BEHAVIOR IN AGE OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE: A STUDY ON TAILORED DATA, PRIVACY RESERVATIONS, AND PURCHASE INTENTIONS <p>This study investigates the complicated relationship between consumers and artificial intelligence (AI), precisely exploring the impact of tailored data (AI) on purchasing decisions. Drawing from a diverse sample of social media users in top five HEC ranked universities, the study investigates how factors such as privacy reservations and positive past experiences intersect with AI-driven personalization, impact consumer attitudes and willingness to make purchases online. The researcher applied survey method to collect data from 346 participants, primarily social media users, with the focus on those regularly engaging with the social media advertising and AI-based applications. This research tested three hypotheses wherein findings show significant influence of tailored data on consumer purchasing willingness and positive past experiences with AI ads. The privacy concerns, however, were found to have an insignificant impact on the online buying decisions. In this linking, these insights contribute to broader discourse on AI's role in consumer behavior, offering practical implications for various businesses navigating integration of artificial intelligence technologies in marketing strategies.</p> Muhammad Farrukh Sundus Rafi Parsa Chand Copyright (c) 2024 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT 2024-06-30 2024-06-30 5 2 297 308 10.53664/JSRD/05-02-2024-25-297-308 XENOCENTRISM AND SOCIAL BONDING: INFLUENCES ON FEMALE UNIVERSITY STUDENTS’ SOCIAL INTERACTIONS <p>This research focuses on relationship between Xenocentrism and societal bonds amid female university students, with an enhanced concentration on the impacts of traditional and ethnic background &amp; geographic landscapes effecting their relations. It is process influenced by superiority deliberation for foreign cultures over one’s own identity. Thus, its influence on societal bonds and relationships amid young adults remains an area of attention. The study comprised of mixed-methods approach, combining survey data from 30 female university students considering in-depth interviews. The phenomenal Xenocentrism is correlated with the social capital in a sense that people adopt Xenocentric behaviors to impress societal relationship and to create a dominating approach. This research promotes a knowledge of complex relationships amid ethnic identity, cultural diversity, societal bonds, superiority considerations and Xenocentrism approves within the young adults of society. The findings could be implemented at all micro &amp; macro levels. From a single individual to a larger community for educating, increasing awareness, trends setting and policymaking to offer the cross-cultural understanding and diversity in higher education settings &amp; within each stratum of society.</p> Fazila Manzoor Abid Ghafoor Chaudhry Copyright (c) 2024 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT 2024-06-30 2024-06-30 5 2 289 296 10.53664/JSRD/05-02-2024-24-289-296 EXPLORING THE LINKAGES BETWEEN GREEN BONDS AND INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL MARKETS: AN INTERNATIONAL PORTFOLIO PERSPECTIVE <p>The aim of study is to examine the dynamic linkages between green bond &amp; international financial markets. In particular, the study investigates the inter-connections among green bonds, world’s developed and emerging equity markets, commodities market (gold &amp; oil) and the foreign exchange market. Sample period ranges from July 1, 2014, to June 30, 2023 encircling numerous important events including COVID-19 pandemics. For empirical investigation, study used combination of several econometric techniques including Johansen Cointegration model and Granger Causality test and analysis for examining short &amp; for long-term associations among markets. Results of study show that these markets are linked in varying degrees in long-run as evident from cointegration results that show two cointegrating vectors. This infers that there are limited diversification benefits specially in long-run in selected markets. In short-run, results show diversification potential as showed by results from Granger Causality tests. Results have important implications for investors &amp; fund managers in making portfolio decisions, &amp; policy makers in devising various strategies for risk mitigation during turbulent periods.</p> Maqsood-Ur-Rehman Irfan Ullah Khan Muhammad Niaz Khan Copyright (c) 2024 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT 2024-06-30 2024-06-30 5 2 277 288 10.53664/JSRD/05-02-2024-23-277-288 FROM SHADOWS TO SPOTLIGHT: THE HIDDEN MENTAL HEALTH COSTS OF BULLYING IN HIGHER EDUCATION <p>The motivation of this research is to examine the effect of multiple types of bullying on the mental health of students in public universities in Punjab, Pakistan. The researchers used quantitative research method &amp; positivism philosophy. The current research sample consisted of 300 students from two well-known public universities, namely Thal University Bhakkar and the University of Sargodha. To test the study's hypothesis, the researchers used SPSS software. The findings of the current study indicated that there is a significant and negative effect of physical bullying on the mental health of the respondents. Moreover, current research indicates that social bullying has a significant and negative effect on respondents' mental health. Results indicated that there is a significant and negative effect of cyberbullying on the mental health of the respondents. These findings put forth a critical point: the universities should take up anti-bullying measures and provide support for mental health to mitigate the effects. From this research, some insights come out as to how the policymakers, educators and mental health professionals could promote student welfare &amp; reduce bullying incidences in academic settings.</p> Afshan Kanwal Sumira Hashmi Saba Shafiq Copyright (c) 2024 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT 2024-06-30 2024-06-30 5 2 267 276 10.53664/JSRD/05-02-2024-22-267-276 THE NEXUS BETWEEN CONFLICT MANAGEMENT STRATEGY AND FACULTY PERFORMANCE: TRANSACTIONAL LEADERSHIP AS MEDIATOR <p>This research aimed to determine relationship amid incorporating conflict management strategies and the faculty performance of a higher education institution facilitated by the transactional leadership style as a mediator variable. A descriptive survey design was used. Sample of 200 instructors was obtained via multi-stage random sampling technique. In this regard, three instruments (Farooqi Organizational Conflict Management Strategy (FOCI), the faculty performance survey and the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) were used in the study. Data were analyzed through AMOS. It was revealed that through implementing conflict management strategies in the institution, there is a direct impact on faculty performance. The results provide significant information in reaching the conclusion and making decision about research issues under consideration in the particular context. The research outcomes indicate that promoting the right conflict management and leadership behaviors in the higher learning faculty is dynamic for the higher performance of the individuals. There is a need for awareness about conflict-solving measures and encouraging constructive leadership.</p> Sidra Kiran Muhammad Moin Muhammad Wasim Shahzad Copyright (c) 2024 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT 2024-06-30 2024-06-30 5 2 259 266 10.53664/JSRD/05-02-2024-21-259-266 FAKE NEWS ABOUT COVID-19 AND ITS PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFECTS ON SOCIAL MEDIA USERS IN PAKISTAN <p>Social media is leading medium which is used for communication during the COVID-19 pandemic. The abrupt episode of Corona pandemic has been joined by explosion of deception about the illness. As COVID-19 epidemic spread, virtual media outlets showed up as significant method for linking, just as a method of looking for and sharing the data about the illness. This examination targets estimating the mental impacts of phony news about COVID-19 via web-based media clients in Pakistan. Study is quantitative in nature. Survey method has been used to collect the data. The Direct Effects Model of Mass Media Theory has been employed on this study. The results of the study reveal that the element of anxiety, fear and stress are linked with social media users of Facebook. Facebook users have come across with these elements due to the circulation of fake news on Facebook and about COVID-19. This study recommends that there should be the gatekeeping mechanism to verify the authenticity of the news shared upon social media platforms. The social media authorities also need to pay heed to stop this prevailing issue, particularly in the age of pandemic when people become more vulnerable.</p> Murtaza Khan Naveed Zafar Hafiz Muhammad Junaid Anwer Copyright (c) 2024 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT 2024-06-30 2024-06-30 5 2 234 246 10.53664/JSRD/05-02-2024-19-234-246 NAVIGATING HOSTILITY: THE EDUCATIONAL IMPACT OF BULLYING UPON GENDER VARIANT STUDENTS <p>The study sets out to explore comprehensive sides where gender identity can cause bullying among students in the arena of education. This study aims to quantify prevalence of bullying, assess psychological effects, rate the impact of bullying on the academic performance, and establishment of correlation to dropout rates. The data were collected through qualitative method. that included interviews with gender variant student’s inception from everywhere. The results indicate the extremely high rates of bullying, which lead to serious mental health complications, the subsequent drop-in educational performance, and more frequent school exits that occur in the gender nonconforming students in comparison with their classmates. The proposal provided should be carried out such as anti-bullying policies that are complete in nature being created, implementation of school settings, which are nurturing and including in nature, mental health services being offered, and participation of parents &amp; the community in the fight against bullying. These provisions are seen as essential amid various strategies and tactics that need to be put in place in provision of a safe and empowering the learning environment for gender nonconforming students to be taught (well) and achieve.</p> Zahida Javed Khaliq Hussain Waqas Ali Khan Copyright (c) 2024 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT 2024-06-30 2024-06-30 5 2 225 233 10.53664/JSRD/05-02-2024-18-225-233 PRINCIPALS' AND DIRECTORS' PERCEPTIONS OF FACULTY PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT OPPORTUNITIES AND THEIR EFFECTIVENESS <p>Effective leadership and management are vital for educational institutions to create high-quality environments for faculty members and to facilitate efficient teaching and learning. Therefore, this qualitative study aimed to investigate the perception of university directors and principals regarding provision of professional development opportunities for faculty members and the effectiveness of these opportunities. A total of seven directors and principals from different divisions &amp; campuses of University of Education, Lahore were selected as a sample for the study using a purposive sampling technique. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to gain in-depth information from the directors and principals. Thematic analysis was used to analyze data after transcription. Researchers explored consensus among directors and principals regarding professional development opportunities offered by University of Education &amp; their perceived effectiveness. Based on the findings, induction training and adequate funding from the higher education regulatory bodies such as the Government of Pakistan, HEC, and PHEC are required for the improvement in offering and tailoring these PD opportunities, which could eventually aid in faculty members' professional advancement.</p> Sumera Rashid Samina Safdar Sadia Afzal Copyright (c) 2024 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT 2024-06-30 2024-06-30 5 2 247 258 10.53664/JSRD/05-02-2024-20-247-258 GENDER DIFFERENCES IN UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS’ ATTRIBUTIONS FOR SUCCESS AND FAILURE IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE ACQUISITION <p>The current study was designed to explore attributions made by students while reflecting on their success and failure in learning English as a second language (ESL). The study also focused on looking at different attributional patterns demonstrated by male and female students. The target population of the study consisted of all students enrolled in 12th grade at public sector colleges of Lahore district. The study included 2152 students (1076 male &amp; 1076 female) studying at intermediate level of public sector colleges. Data were collected by using ASQ &amp; AFQ. Results of t-test also highlighted the differences amid male and female students' attributions regarding success and failure. Based on the findings, college administration, and teachers can gain the valuable insights into the factors that impact students' learning experiences and identify areas for improvement in acquisition of a second language. Moreover, they can play an indispensable role in modifying the students’ attributions by using the appropriate measures such as providing constructive feedback on students’ work so they can develop a realization regarding relationship between actions and outcomes, and controllability over events.</p> Samina Safdar Sumera Rashid Sajida Saif Copyright (c) 2024 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT 2024-06-30 2024-06-30 5 2 207 224 10.53664/JSRD/05-02-2024-17-207-224 EVALUATING THE QUALITY OF STUDENT REFLECTIONS IN PEACE EDUCATION CLASSROOM TAUGHT WITH PEDAGOGY OF DISCOMFORT <p>This study aimed to explore the depth and/or quality level of the students’ responses when they responded critically in their written reflections in a peace education classroom that incorporated a pedagogy of discomfort. In this empirical study, featuring reflections from 43 undergraduate students in Sialkot, Pakistan, the authors seek to understand how reflections-based pedagogical methods that affect critical thinking ability, self-awareness, cultural sensitivity and understanding of society issues. Thus, the study uses qualitative methods to assess students’ critical reflections from provocation pedagogy experience. Overall, students showed greater critical thinking and self-reflection as their perception of distinct identity were questioned. Nevertheless, the level of depth and sophistication in reflections differed across students. However, the study points to how a pedagogy of discomfort can arguably result in meaningful responses for engaging with issues such as those related above. In this regard, some discussion is presented upon the barriers &amp; limitations to implementing these approaches. The findings add to an important dialogue around what works in peace education activities globally.</p> Yaar Muhammad Yasira Waqar Samina Safdar Copyright (c) 2024 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT 2024-06-30 2024-06-30 5 2 195 206 10.53664/JSRD/05-02-2024-16-195-206 THE RELATIONSHIP AMONG RESILIENCE, SOCIAL SUPPORT & SUBJECTIV WELL-BEING AMONG INDIVIDUALS WITH MILD SENSORY IMPAIRMENT <p>Sensory impaired individuals often face mental disorders which threatens their psychological wellbeing. This research explored subjective wellbeing, social support and resilience among sensory impaired individuals. Cross-sectional research design along with quantitative research methodology was utilized. Sample of 50 individuals was recruited through convenience sampling technique. Individuals with mild sensory impairment and both genders were enlisted as sample. The participants with severe impairment were excluded. The self-developed standardized scales were utilized for the data collection. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used for analysis of data. Results revealed that there is positive correlation between subjective wellbeing (R=.712, P=.000) and social support (R=.487, P=.000). While positive correlation was revealed amid resilience (R=.282, P=.000) &amp; social support (R=.485, P=.000). The outcome of linear regression analysis, elucidated by an R-squared value of 0.596. The research findings show a significant influence of social support &amp; resilience on subjective wellbeing of sensory impaired individuals, fostering deeper comprehension on their inter relation.</p> Salbia Abbas Ayesha Sohail Afifa Fatima Copyright (c) 2024 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT 2024-06-30 2024-06-30 5 2 185 194 10.53664/JSRD/05-02-2024-15-185-194 THE NEXUS BETWEEN TALENT RETENTION & ORGANIZATION PERFORMANCE THROUGH MEDIATING ROLE OF ORGANIZATION JUSTICE <p>This study investigates the mediation effect of organizational justice on the relationship between talent retention &amp; organizational performance amid teachers in the higher education institutions. A sample of 323 teachers was selected from a population of 1666 using a specified sampling formula. The mediation analysis followed three key steps. First, it was found that talent retention significantly predicts organizational justice with 70.9% variance. Second, the combined effect of talent retention and organizational justice on organizational performance was examined, revealing that these factors together explain 88.7% of variance in organizational performance. Finally, the direct effect of talent retention on the organizational performance was assessed, indicating that talent retention alone accounts for 83.3% of the change in organizational performance. In this regard, the analysis confirms that organizational justice significantly mediates the relationship between talent retention and organizational performance, highlighting importance of fair and just practices within institutions in order to enhance the overall performances. It is recommended that institutions are required to ensure fairness in all respect to retain talent and improve performance in higher institutions.</p> Riaz Ahmad Irfan Ullah Khan Copyright (c) 2024 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT 2024-06-30 2024-06-30 5 2 172 184 10.53664/JSRD/05-02-2024-14-172-184 THE NEXUS BETWEEN TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP AND JOB CRAFTING: A MEDIATION MODERATION ANALYSIS <p>The leadership, in all respects, is responsible for inspiration of employees toward desired objectives and ultimately the success of organizations. This study aims to analyze effect of transformational leadership on job crafting. This study used structured questionnaire for the data collection purpose. The questionnaire was conducted to personnel from educational sector of in Pakistan. A total of 250 surveys were distributed, with a 97% response rate. SPSS Process Macro was used for the analysis of the data. The findings indicate that psychological ownership improves the association between transformational leadership and job crafting. A healthy work environment minimizes stress and improves performance outcomes. The innovative work behavior is a vital factor that boosts individual towards performance thus leading to organizational success. This study aims to first analyze positive affect the relationship of transformational leadership and job crafting and therefore provides significant contribution to the psychological ownership, and innovative work behavior with mediation and moderation effect and job crafting as dependent variable. This study offered significant outcomes that may help policymakers in revisiting their policies towards the issues under considerations.</p> Sana Mukhtar Sajid Mushtaq Hafiz Muhammad Umair Nasir Copyright (c) 2024 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT 2024-06-24 2024-06-24 5 2 141 154 10.53664/JSRD/05-02-2024-12-141-154 CHALLENGES & APPRAISALS: AN IN-DEPTH EXAMINATION OF THE WOMEN PARLIAMENTARIANS' PERFORMANCE <p>This qualitative study delves into multifaceted issues and challenges faced by elected women parliamentarians as they carry out their parliamentary duties and perceptions and appraisals of their performance by their male colleagues, assembly officials, and representatives of non-governmental organizations (NGOs). Thus, 10 semi-structured interviews were conducted to explore these dimensions. Study reveals a range of challenges faced by elected women parliamentarians, including gender-based biases, unequal opportunities, and limited access to resources. Male colleagues often cited issues related to gender stereotypes and traditional gender roles as barriers to women's effectiveness in parliament. In contrast, assembly officials and NGO representatives generally held more positive views about services as provided by elected women parliamentarians, accepting their dedication and commitment to addressing critical social issues. The significance of this research lies in its potential to inform policy changes, foster gender equality and encourage the active participation of women in political leadership. Recommendations include the need for increased support and resources for elected women parliamentarians and the promotion of gender-sensitive policies within legislative bodies to enhance the efficacy of parliamentary services.</p> Saba Lodhi Copyright (c) 2024 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT 2024-06-28 2024-06-28 5 2 155 171 10.53664/JSRD/05-02-2024-13-155-171 AN INVESTIGATION ON CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT CHALLENGES FACED BY TEACHERS AT PRIMARY SCHOOL LEVEL IN PUNJAB <p>Schools play an important role in community development, particularly for children. The teachers engage in daily routine activities to support this goal. As a result, primary school pupils improve their mental and physical talents while learning life skills and academic competence. The purpose of this research was to assess the difficulties that primary school teachers face while managing classroom. 200 primary teachers were randomly selected from Lahore, Multan, and Mianwali districts. Data were gathered through a self-developed questionnaire and analyzed by using t-test and ANOVA in inferential statistics. The results of study illustrated that primary-level teachers encountered enormous classroom management challenges. Both gender and teacher’s district showed a significant difference in classroom management. The results indicated the requirement of effective classroom management strategies, supportive infrastructure, and potential training for teachers. To have effective classroom management there is a need to work together including teachers, parents, and educational authorities to create good learning environment &amp; manage challenges faced by primary school teachers.</p> Ambreen Siddique Zainab Noorani Muhammad Moin Copyright (c) 2024 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 5 2 130 140 10.53664/JSRD/05-02-2024-11-130-140 THE IMPACT OF GREEN GOVERNANCE ON SUSTAINABILITY REPORTING & CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY: FINANCIAL RISK AS MODERATOR <p>The present research endeavors to examine the effects of green governance namely board gender diversity, committee size, board independence, and board size, on corporate social responsibility and sustainability reporting. The study also considers the moderating effect of financial risk, including liquidity risk and capital risk. The data has been obtained from banking institutions in financial sector of Pakistan. Dataset comprises information from 33 banks that were included in our analysis. Convenience sampling technique was employed to gather the time series and cross-sectional data, which was utilized to construct panels in order to obtain desired outcomes. The results show significant and favorable relationship amid board's size &amp; degree of independence when it comes to corporate social responsibility and sustainability reporting. There is a negative correlation amid presence of a board committee, board gender diversity and practice of sustainability reporting. Regression has confirmed consistent findings, indicating that both board size and board independence exhibit positive association with SRI &amp; CSR, whereas board committee and board gender diversity show a negative link.</p> Ahmad Tisman Pasha Aroosa Aiwan Tahmina Akhtar Copyright (c) 2024 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 5 2 119 129 10.53664/JSRD/05-02-2024-10-119-129 IMPACT OF TOXIC LEADERSHIP ON EMPLOYEES’ PERFORMANCE: TO WHAT EXTENT EMPLOYEES’ RESILIENCE MATTERS! <p>Toxic leadership is recognized as leader’s negative attitude characterized by authoritarian, abusive and self-serving behaviors, that is recognized as a detrimental factor in organizational settings. It can negatively influence the employees’ behaviors likewise morale, motivation, commitment and performance in organization. In this drive, employee resilience is expected to play active role in linking toxic leadership and employees’ performance. In order to examine these phenomena, like (toxic leadership as predictor), (employees’ resilience as mediator) &amp; (employee performance as mediator), data was collected from faculty members hailing from higher institutions in southern region, KP, Pakistan. Research aimed to use survey approach to collect the data, analyze data and to examine hypothesized relationships (association &amp; mediation) among the research variables through different hypotheses as extracted from theoretical framework. The results provide vital information about association and mediation in reaching the desired conclusion. It is suggested higher institutions may use suitable leadership styles so as to inspire employees toward sustainable performance supported by resilience.</p> Irfan Ullah Khan Muhammad Siddique Yasir Hayat Mughal Copyright (c) 2024 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT 2024-06-08 2024-06-08 5 2 108 118 10.53664/JSRD/05-02-2024-09-108-118 IMPACT OF IN-SERVICE TRAINING ON PEOPLE-FOCUSED AND DEMOCRATIC LEADERSHIP SKILLS AMONG EDUCATIONAL MANAGERS OF PUNJAB <p>This quantitative study examined the impact of in-service training offered by Quaid-e-Azam Academy for Educational Development (QAED) on the people-focused and democratic leadership skills of educational managers in Punjab, Pakistan. Random sample of 359 educational managers from the Punjab province participated in study. Data were collected using adopted questionnaires based on indicators used during QAED's in-service training sessions, administered through Google form with a five-point Likert scale. The results revealed that majority of participants perceived the in-service training as effective in enhancing people-focused &amp; democratic leadership skills. The study highlights the importance of well-designed, targeted, and collaborative training programs in developing essential leadership skills, fostering collaboration and networking, realizing ongoing support systems &amp; regularly assessing the effectiveness of training initiatives. The findings contribute to the growing body of research emphasizing the significance of professional development for educational leaders &amp; implications for policy and practice in the education sector, as well as for leadership development in other industries.</p> Muhammad Abbas Muhammad Sarwar Raza-Ur-Rehman Copyright (c) 2024 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT 2024-06-01 2024-06-01 5 2 96 107 10.53664/JSRD/05-02-2024-08-96-107 TEACHERS’ PERCEPTION ABOUT ORGANIZATIONAL POLITICS & ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH TEACHERS’ PERFORMANCE: THE APPLICABILITY OF MOA MODEL <p>The motivation, opportunity and ability model for teachers’ performance is related to the employees' long-term performance and competitiveness. The purpose of the study was to investigate the perceptions of teachers about organizational politics by finding out the relationship amid organizational politics, teachers' performance, and motivation, opportunity, and abilities (MOA) model. Quantitative survey research design was employed for this study. The sample was comprised of 15 public &amp; 15 private schools of district Lahore. The data were collected using a self-developed questionnaire. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The results indicated that school teachers observed a strong culture of organizational politics. Results showed that there is positive relationship amid teachers’ performance and MOA model and thus related to organizational politics. The findings of study will enhance understanding of teachers' performance in MOA model &amp; politics &amp; interrelationship with individual performance. Teacher’s performance can be increased with the use of MOA model in the institutions.</p> Amjad Hussain Nighat Ara Ali Gul Bugti Copyright (c) 2024 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT 2024-05-30 2024-05-30 5 2 84 95 10.53664/JSRD/05-02-2024-07-84-95 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES AND DIGITAL LITERACY SKILLS AMONG UNIVERSITY STUDENTS <p>This study investigates the relationship between multiple intelligence (MI) and digital literacy among university-level students. Drawing on Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences &amp; contemporary understandings of digital literacy, research explores how different intelligence styles may influence many aspects of digital competency. Study population included all university students of District Lahore, and 600 students were selected randomly from this population. Quantitative research design was adopted for study in which standardized questionnaires were adopted for the study. Findings of study showed significant correlation amid specific intelligence styles &amp; components of digital literacy, highlighting role of intrapersonal intelligence in communication, content creation, and safety within digital environments. Conversely, the verbal-linguistic intelligence shows limited correlation with digital literacy, stressing nuanced nature of intelligence-digital literacy associations. Furthermore, correlations reveal that content creation skills are associated with the intrapersonal intelligence &amp; safety component, while the problem-solving was significantly linked to musical intelligence.</p> Rabia Tabassum Saliha Saleem Saira Taj Copyright (c) 2024 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT 2024-05-27 2024-05-27 5 2 70 83 10.53664/JSRD/05-02-2024-06-70-83 ENHANCING STUDENT MOTIVATION AT COLLEGE LEVEL THROUGH EFFECTIVE CONFLICT MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES <p>This study investigated the impact of conflict management strategies (task, relationship, and value) on college students' motivation toward learning. A sample of 392 students from the intermediate classes in public and private colleges from urban &amp; rural areas participated. Data were collected using a self-developed rating scale and analyzed with SPSS software. The results revealed that task conflict management showed little variations between school types, relation &amp; value conflict management significantly affected motivation, with public schools outperforming private ones. Gender-based differences were noted in the relationship conflict management, with male respondents displaying lower motivation levels. Urban schools generally exhibited lower motivation than rural schools across all conflict resolution categories. Present results emphasized how crucial it is to use prevention approaches towards specific conflicts and to apply positive stimulation to students to promote more positive relations and thus motivate students in different educational environments. If the technologies employed where novelties’ little chance of support would be available to those lacking in IT expertise.</p> Farida Siddique Shafqat Ali Iffat Basit Copyright (c) 2024 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT 2024-05-21 2024-05-21 5 2 26 38 10.53664/JSRD/05-02-2024-03-26-38 OCCUPATIONAL WELL-BEING IN BRICK KILN INDUSTRY: A SOCIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF WORKERS' EXPERIENCES IN PUNJAB, PAKISTAN <p>The study's objective was to explore occupational well-being of brick kiln workers. The impetus of this research is to improve the brick kiln laborers' well-being. The study's population of concern included the four districts of Punjab, Pakistan. Two districts selected from the South, Punjab, Multan and Jhang, and two from east of the Punjab are Sialkot and Kasur. The in-depth interviews (qualitative) &amp; interview schedule (quantitative) methods were used to collect data. For the qualitative part, 10 stakeholders were selected purposively for in-depth interviews. For quantitative part, the convenient sampling technique was used for data collection. Both, qualitative data and quantitative data were analyzed through diverse statistics procedures as per requirements of study. Results show that occupational well-being was moderately positively correlated with theoretical model of Keyes. The findings are based on qualitative part with theme interpretation, and next quantitative part is divided into two distinct segments, namely descriptive data analysis and inferential data analysis. Data was analyzed by using SPSS &amp; smart PLS-SEM, which are main tools used to scrutinize structural equation models.</p> Rab Nawaz Bhatti Mian Ghulam Yasin Tauqeer Ahmed Lak Copyright (c) 2024 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT 2024-05-22 2024-05-22 5 2 39 54 10.53664/JSRD/05-02-2024-04-39-54 EDUCATION FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: AN ANALYSIS OF ENGLISH TEXTBOOK GRADE-V <p>The current research adopted qualitative content analysis with the help of NVivo 12 software and a purposive sampling technique to select a Grade 5 English textbook. The main purpose of study was to analyze the document regarding six aspects of sustainability by Tawanti framework. Findings of study revealed that sustainability has been viewed holistically consisting of environmental, social, economic, institutional, cultural and values-based approaches. The study of textbook revealed that most parts of the textbook were seen promoting the environmental awareness, gender equality, social responsibility, financial literacy, national pride, cultural diversity &amp; values. Furthermore, specific lessons and activities were also found in the textbook to offer knowledge and training related to sustainable practices, empathy, ethical decision making &amp; cultural heritage of Pakistan. It was concluded that the textbook of Grade 5 English is aligned with many aspects of the sustainability that give a more inclusive view of sustainable development. The study suggested further emphasis on economic dimension to prepare the students with the knowledge and skills that align with the economic sustainability.</p> Muhammad Jamil Farwa Khalil Zainab Noorani Copyright (c) 2024 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT 2024-05-18 2024-05-18 5 2 1 13 10.53664/JSRD/05-02-2024-01-01-13 EXAMINING FOREGROUNDING AS A STRATEGY FOR IDENTITY MAINTENANCE THROUGH STYLISTIC ANALYSIS OF AFRO-AMERICAN POETRY <p>This study investigates the use of foregrounding that involves deviation and parallelism as a strategy to maintain the identity and disclose racial discrimination in poetry of Langston Hughes, a famous twentieth-century Afro-American poet during Harlem Renaissance. By adopting qualitative approach, researchers selected three different poems from three different volumes of Hughes’s poetry by adopting random sampling technique and analyzed them by applying theory of foregrounding presented by Leech (1969). The foregrounding, a stylistic device emphasizing certain linguistic features to create emphasis or deviation from normative language patterns, serves as means for the poets to reclaim agency and articulate their unique experiences, histories, and perspectives. Researchers found that Hughes’s poetry presents many foregrounded features on different levels, i.e., phonological, graphological, grammatical and semantic. The findings show that these foregrounded features upon different linguistic levels help the poet to maintain his identity and disclose racial discrimination. Therefore, these foregrounding features also help the poet revolt against the racial discrimination.</p> Abdul Basit Muhammad Sabboor Hussain Akhtar Abbas Copyright (c) 2024 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT 2024-05-18 2024-05-18 5 2 14 25 10.53664/JSRD/05-02-2024-02-14-25 TUNES OF TRADITIONS IN FOLK SONGS: UNRAVELLING BALTI SOCIETY'S FABRICS THROUGH THEMATIC ANALYSIS <p>The research aimed to conduct a thematic analysis of the selected Balti folksongs, with the goal of identifying the dominant themes in these songs and examining how they reflect intricate nuances and values embedded within Balti society. Qualitative research methods were employed, using data meticulously selected from works of Syed Muhammad Abbas Kazmi and Muhammad Abbas Khargrong as primary sources. Moreover, various books and articles were used as supplementary sources. Analysis followed Johnny Saldana’s code-to-theory model, involving three stages of coding: first, second, &amp; third cycle coding. Findings revealed that culture, religion, politics, affection, &amp; fidelity are all elements contributing to a balanced &amp; harmonious life in Balti society, providing sense of identity, purpose and stability. Conversely, accusations were found to create conflicts, &amp; disrupt harmony in individuals’ lives. Research concludes by suggesting pathways for future researchers to explore interconnections &amp; relations among these dominant features. Translated versions of songs were used to make research accessible to foreign scholars, fostering cross-cultural collaboration across linguistic barriers.</p> Syeda Noreen Kazmi Ansar Ali Muhammad Issa Copyright (c) 2024 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT 2024-05-23 2024-05-23 5 2 55 69 10.53664/JSRD/05-02-2024-05-55-69 THE DYNAMIC PATH BETWEEN SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR OVER ORGANIZATIONAL TRUST IN BANKING SECTOR <p>In modern era, with growing societal expectation and regulatory pressures, banks are increasingly recognizing the importance of social responsibility initiatives not only for their reputation but also for positive relationships with stakeholders. The study aimed to examine the relationship between social responsibility, organization trust, and citizenship behavior within the context of banking sector in southern region KP, Pakistan. Using a sample of 309 employees, a series of path analyses were conducted to investigate the direct &amp; mediated effects among variables. Firstly, social responsibility positively predicted the citizenship behavior (β = 0.752, p&lt;0.001). Secondly, social responsibility also positively predicted organization trust (β = 0.787, p &lt;0.001). Thirdly, organization trust positively predicted citizenship behavior (β = 0.874, p &lt; 0.001). Lastly, the indirect effect of social responsibility on citizenship behavior through organization trust was significant (β = 0.739, p &lt;0.001), indicating partial mediation. These findings confirmed the standing of social responsibility and organizational trust in promoting the positive citizenship behavior among the employees in banking sector in the context under considerations.</p> Muhammad Ali Irfan Ullah Khan Copyright (c) 2024 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT 2024-03-31 2024-03-31 5 2 118 131 10.53664/JSRD/05-01-2024-10-118-131 APPRAISAL OF RESOURCES AND SERVICES OF LIBRARIES IN COMMERCE COLLEGES OF PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SECTOR <p>The aim of the study is to explore current status of resources and services in libraries of commerce colleges public and private sector in the Sargodha division. There are 51 (17 Government + 34 Private) colleges of Commerce in Sargodha Division. The researcher personally visited all colleges so, the response rate was 100%. Survey method was used to gather the required data. The study is quantitative in nature. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze the data under consideration of research objects and got answer of the research question. The results of study provide important information in reaching the conclusion and making appropriate decisions. The majority of libraries have insufficient resources so, the services which depends upon the proper resources are not up-to the mark and standards. the main reason behind was the non-availability of library professionals and, less interest of administration and lack of interest of library users in libraries were core problems as found in the study. The results of study offered important clues to future researchers for conducting their research on the similar issues in diverse contexts.</p> Zahid Sultan Muhammad Asif Shamshad Ahmed Copyright (c) 2024 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT 2024-03-31 2024-03-31 5 2 101 117 10.53664/JSRD/05-01-2024-09-101-117 INVESTIGATING THE BENEFITS AND CHALLENGES OF INTERDISCIPLINARY EDUCATION IN HIGHER EDUCATION SETTINGS <p>This study explores the dynamics of interdisciplinary education in private universities in Lahore, Pakistan, addressing a significant research gap in global discourse on this pedagogical approach. The research investigates faculty perceptions, benefits for students, and challenges associated with interdisciplinary education. Based on mixed-methods approach, including surveys &amp; interviews, study reveals generally positive faculty perceptions, emphasizing the value of interdisciplinary education in enhancing critical thinking, problem-solving skills &amp; overall learning experiences. Students, in turn, are reported to derive multifaceted benefits, including increased creativity, adaptability, and holistic understanding of societal challenges. Yet, challenges such as limited institutional support and resistance from traditional structures pose obstacles to effective implementation. Findings not only donate to localized understanding of interdisciplinary education in Lahore but offer insights applicable to educational contexts worldwide, aiming to enhance quality and relevance of higher education in an ever-evolving landscape.</p> Shahid Rafiq Farrukh Kamran Ayesha Afzal Copyright (c) 2024 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT 2024-03-31 2024-03-31 5 2 87 100 10.53664/JSRD/05-01-2024-08-87-100 UNVEILING THE TRANSFORMATIVE POTENTIAL OF TEACHER EDUCATION IN PROMOTING PEACEBUILDING: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY <p>Recognizing the crucial role of teachers as catalysts for societal change, the study aimed to explore the lived experiences and perspectives of teachers engaged in peace-building initiatives within their educational contexts. Through a phenomenological lens, this research sought to uncover essence and meaning of these experiences to shed light on transformative power of teacher education in fostering peace with specific aims, to understand the essence and meaning of teacher educators' experiences in peace-building, focusing on their perceptions, beliefs, &amp; values related to peace education. Using qualitative method, include in-depth interviews data, was collected through a purposive sample from five senior teacher educators who were actively involved in peace-building efforts. The findings of this research demonstrated the positive impact of teacher education in peacebuilding and preventing youth from extremist conduct and conflicts in educational institutions. By unveiling transformative potential of teacher education in promoting peacebuilding, this study inspires educational stakeholders to recognize and harness power of teachers in building peaceful and inclusive societies.</p> Amber Jamshaid Tanzeela Akram Shafia Baber Copyright (c) 2024 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT 2024-03-31 2024-03-31 5 2 74 86 10.53664/JSRD/05-01-2024-07-74-86 THE EFFECT OF JOB ATTITUDES ON EMPLOYEES' KNOWLEDGE SHARING BEHAVIOR IN TELECOMMUNICATION SECTOR OF PAKISTAN <p>The knowledge sharing behavior has received great attention in business world because of high critical role in improving organizational efficiency. The relationship between job attitudes and employees' knowledge sharing behavior is a significant area of research in organizational psychology and human resource management. The job attitudes, such as job satisfactions and organizational commitment, can influence employees' willingness to share knowledge with their colleagues. This study empirically investigates the relationship between job attitudes (i.e., organizational commitment, job involvement, and job satisfaction) and information sharing actions using a statistical procedure based on survey of 226 Mobilink telecommunication private limited employees from Pakistan's Hazara Division, KP, Pakistan. The findings showed that knowledge sharing behavior is linked with work satisfaction, organizational engagement and job participation positively. The study offered some recommendations that how managers can improve the knowledge sharing behavior in their organizations by considering the dynamic issues.</p> Sher Ali Hazrat Bilal Sabeela Sabir Copyright (c) 2024 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT 2024-03-31 2024-03-31 5 2 63 73 10.53664/JSRD/05-01-2024-06-63-73 THE EFFECT OF CSR ON EARNINGS MANAGEMENT: MODERATING ROLE OF BOARD DIVERSITY IN PAKISTANI LISTED FIRMS <p>This study examines Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and Earnings Management (EM) relationship with moderating role of board diversity of two types, i.e., female and foreign directorships on board. Content analysis is used for measurement of CSR through a data sample of 274 firms from the non-financial sector listed on Pakistan stock exchange for years 2012, 2014, and 2015. However, EM is measured over three discretionary accruals models Jones, Modified Jones, and Kothari models. Based on the results of descriptive analysis, it has been found that the level of CSR reporting has been improved in the post-CSR guidelines period as compared to the pre-CSR guidelines period. While results of regression analysis report that the higher CSR level of an organization the lesser would be the EM activities. This study suggests managers to concentrate upon CSR and board diversity for better earning management. Impact of board diversity on relationship as a moderator makes this study more novel because, as far as our research and previous literature is concerned, there has been very limited literature on this topic.</p> Khurram Ashfaq Muhammad Naeem Anjum Muhammad Raza Zafar Copyright (c) 2024 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT 2024-03-31 2024-03-31 5 2 47 62 10.53664/JSRD/05-01-2024-05-47-62 NEXUS BETWEEN SERVICE QUALITY & CUSTOMER LOYALTY: MEDIATING ROLE OF CUSTOMER SATISFACTION IN BANKING SECTOR <p>In modern banking industry, for maintaining competitive edge, standing of customer loyalty has become paramount and indispensable. Due to fierce competition within banking sector, understanding and nurturing customer loyalty has appeared as a strategic imperative. This research investigates the service quality impact on customer satisfaction and effect of customer satisfaction on customer loyalty. It looks at the role of customer satisfaction as a mediator in relationship amid dependent and independent variables. In order to validate this link, data was collected from 250 customers across the five major banks operating in Nikpikhel, Swat. The results revealed a significant positive relationship amid two study variables. The mediation analysis reveals that customer satisfaction partially mediates relationship between the given variables. The findings of study highlight the critical importance of study factors which enhance customer loyalty in banking sector. The conclusion offers certain clues towards some recommendations to banking sector and customers concerning the issues under consideration in this study.</p> Shahid Ali Shah Hazrat Bilal Ijaz Sanober Copyright (c) 2024 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT 2024-03-31 2024-03-31 5 2 37 46 10.53664/JSRD/05-01-2024-04-37-46 ANALYZING THE PERCEPTION OF STUDENTS ABOUT HYBRID LEARNING PROGRAM IN UNIVERSITIES <p>The study's objective was to determine how students felt about university blended learning programs. This study looked at evidence showing how blended learning affects students' perceptions. The study's population of concern included all social sciences students from 2-universities in Multan district (Bahauddin Zakariya University &amp; Women University). Sample of study comprised 360 students from social sciences faculty, 30 students were selected from each department. Questionnaire was developed for students. The questionnaire contains 25 items for students' perception and a five-point Likert scale was used for scoring. Statistical methods were applied to obtain findings about student reactions like %, mean, frequency and SD was used to apply and examine the perception of students about blended learning program. It was found that majority of participants believe that blended learning helps make students independent, inspired, confident &amp; more effective. Students should participate in training program to improve ability to use technology in blended learning &amp; regular feedback sessions should be encouraged.</p> Hina Munir Huma Mumtaz Samra Naseer Copyright (c) 2024 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT 2024-03-21 2024-03-21 5 2 26 36 10.53664/JSRD/05-01-2024-03-26-36 ANALYSIS OF REGIONAL STOCK MARKETS FOR INVESTMENT & DIVERSIFICATION PERSPECTIVE: EVIDENCE FROM PAKISTAN, CHINA & INDIAN STOCK MARKETS <p>The academic ramification of research is that it is one of few that provides a comprehensive analysis of regional market cointegration. One of this study methods is application of pairwise cointegration that is useful for figuring out strength of long-term link amid two variables. In order to reap benefits of diversity, it is better to invest locally rather than traveling to another region, which is why this study investigates new options for academicians to examine long-term interaction between regional stock markets. Study employs most efficient pairwise cointegrated approach to illustrate precise link amid two variables. Daily data of these countries' stock market indices from 2002-2018, used to study stock market co-movement/co-integration. The statistical tests were applied like Dickey Fuller test, regression &amp; co-variance. Pairwise co-integration is examined after confirming combine co integration of three markets. Results show that there is no cointegration amid stock markets of Pakistan China &amp; India. So, Pakistani investors have chance to participate in other two markets at a time when it appears to be lucrative investment portfolio.</p> Lala Rukh Alamzeb Shafiq Ur Rehman Copyright (c) 2024 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT 2024-03-15 2024-03-15 5 2 13 25 10.53664/JSRD/05-01-2024-02-13-25 EXPLORING THE TRANSACTIONAL LEADERSHIP & ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH TEACHERS’ MOTIVATION <p>This study investigated the correlation between transactional leadership and teachers' motivation at university level, focusing on two public sector universities hailing from Punjab (BZ University, Multan, Islamia University Bahawalpur) and two universities from the Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa (Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan and University of Science and Technology Bannu). With a total population of 1477 teachers, a sample of 147 teachers was selected using Gay's (1987) recommendation of 10% sample size. Data was gathered through questionnaires, a commonly used tool in the social sciences, particularly in education (Taherdoost, 2016). Descriptive statistics such as mean and percentage were employed, alongside the inferential statistics including correlation, t-tests, and ANOVA. Findings indicated a significant relationship between transactional leadership and teachers' motivation at the university level. The results are significant and offered some recommendations to policy-makers along with certain clues for the future researchers about the application of transactional leadership in the higher institutions.</p> Khalid Mehboob Umar Ali Khan Liaquat Hussain Copyright (c) 2024 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT 2024-02-28 2024-02-28 5 2 01 12 10.53664/JSRD/05-01-2024-01-01-12 EXAMINING THE ROLE OF BUSINESS ANALYTICS CAPABILITY IN FIRMS' AGILITY & PERFORMANCE: EVIDENCE FROM MANUFACTURING SECTOR <p>The purpose of study is to analyze empirically effect of Business Analytics Capability (BAC) on agility and performance of firms by focusing on role of Information Quality (IQ) and Innovative Capability (IC). The research was conducted using a quantitative research design focusing on workers in manufacturing sector in Pakistan. The data attained from a sample of 350 managerial-level workers in Lahore by means of structured questionnaire survey supports the significant positive relationship between BAC &amp; both FA and FPP. The study reveals the strong and positive relationship between IQ &amp; firms’ adaptability, productivity and significant and positive impact of innovative capability on organizations’ agility and efficiency. The study emphasizes complexity of factors critical for organizational success within organizational context. The significance of results extends beyond reach of study, providing relevant insights into academic and professional contexts. The existing theoretical frameworks can be strengthened by adding these aforementioned antecedents and managers should exploit this opportunity in order to improve organizational agility and performance in the dynamic manufacturing environment.</p> Saad Zafar Taha Yab Ali Abbas Uddin Copyright (c) 2023 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 5 2 811 819 10.53664/JSRD/04-04-2023-15-811-819 CRAFTING SUCCESS: UNVEILING TACIT KNOWLEDGE ROLE AS MEDIATOR IN DYNAMIC INTERPLAY AMID KNOWLEDGE CREATION & ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE <p>The purpose of this article, which is named crafting success, is to examine knowledge generation process, tacit knowledge management, and rational decision making as factors that determine the performance of a business in dynamic &amp; ever-changing industrial landscape of Lahore. The research is conducted using quantitative methodology &amp; it involves large number of manufacturing enterprises as based in Lahore. By means of quantitative measurement, surveys are carried out, and validated scales are utilized in order to quantify the generations of knowledge, the management of tacit knowledge, rational decision-making &amp; performance of the organizations. Determining the relationship amid these variables, with tacit knowledge serving as mediator and rational decision-making serving as a moderator, is the contribution that this approach makes. The purpose of this study is to provide valuable insights to the manufacturing industry in Lahore and to assist in the achievement of success by gaining an awareness of the factors that influence the knowledge dynamics that are associated with decision-making processes.</p> Muhammad Usman Mehboob Radia Asghar Qurat-Ul-Ain Copyright (c) 2023 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 5 2 803 810 10.53664/JSRD/04-04-2023-14-803-810 THE SUSTAINABLE SYNERGY: NAVIGATING CSR, GREEN INNOVATION, & DEVELOPMENT DYNAMICS <p>Within the context of small and medium-sized businesses, primary focus of this research is on interrelationships that exist between Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), green innovation, environmental strategy, as well as Corporation Sustainable Development. This research validates that there are notable correlations amid these components by utilizing correlation matrix. Significantly positive relationships have been shown between CSR and corporate social responsibility (CSD), and between green innovation education, employee happiness &amp; organization development. According to these findings, there is positive correlation between two, which suggests that businesses that place emphasis on corporate social responsibility are likely to adopt integrated sustainable practices and an environmentally friendly attitude, in turn has a beneficial impact on employee satisfaction and organizational success. It is emphasized in the case study that small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) should incorporate CSR activities and green innovation not only because these are ethical goals, but also because they have the potential to be drivers of the overall sustainable development.</p> Ahsan Ali Manaqib Mukhtar Usama Saleem Copyright (c) 2023 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 5 2 784 793 10.53664/JSRD/04-04-2023-12-784-793 THE CHALLENGES CONFRONTED BY DIFFERENTLY-ABLED STUDENTS IN INCLUSIVE SYSTEM OF EDUCATION AT HIGHER LEVEL <p>The present study aimed to examine the challenges faced by differently-abled students in inclusive system of education at higher level. The sample size was 53 differently-abled students of three universities. Mode of data collection was survey to get responses from differently-abled students by questionnaire comprised 17 items. The first area of questionnaire explores attitudinal problems, the second area explore lack of facilities and third area of questionnaire explore the educational problems. Data from replies were entered into the statistical tool (SPSS) to examine challenges faced by students with disabilities in the inclusive higher education systems. For this purpose, statistical methods like mathematical mean, frequency, percent, standard deviation, crosstabs and Chi-Square were used. All participant agreed to give information about attitudinal problems, lack of facilities &amp; educational problem faced by differently-abled students of universities. The result suggested that in order to support or accommodate the students with the differently-abled needs, the government and higher education institutions must create specific funding for special students to meet their educational requirements.</p> Ayesha Altaf Uzma Munawar Hina Munir Copyright (c) 2023 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 5 2 794 802 10.53664/JSRD/04-04-2023-13-794-802 THE MODERATING EFFECTS OF VIOLENT GAMING UPON PSYCHOPATHIC PERSONALITY AND BULLYING BEHAVIOR IN PROBLEMATIC SMARTPHONE USERS <p>A psychopathic personality is a pattern of traits linked to impulsivity, lack of empathy &amp; propensity to indulge in criminal behavior. It is significantly associated with bullying behavior, especially among problematic smart users. Present study explored the role of violent games on psychopathic personality and bullying behavior. Using the purposive sample approach, data was gathered from 801 young smartphone users. The results indicated a high association between psychopathic personality characteristics and bullying behavior. The results of study provide important information in reaching the conclusion and making suitable decisions about phenomena under considerations. In this regard, the findings of moderation analysis revealed that association between psychopathic personality and bullying has become strongest with violent video games. The findings would also assist psychologists in forming support groups and educational campaigns that facilitate young adults about the negative impacts of violent games and excessive smart phone use on mental health and thus study provides clues for future research.</p> Arooj Miran Faiqa Yaseen Hira Jahangir Copyright (c) 2023 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT 2023-12-28 2023-12-28 5 2 761 770 10.53664/JSRD/04-04-2023-10-761-770 EMPOWERING SUSTAINABLE FINANCE: EXAMINING THE NEXUS OF ATTITUDE, INTERNAL MEASURES, & PERCEIVED CONTROL IN BANKERS' INTENTIONS FOR GREEN BANKING <p>The main objective of study is to investigate the determinants that impact the behavioral inclination of bankers in Pakistan towards embracing green banking. The research objective is to examine impact of attitude, internal measurements, perceived behavioral control, and subjective standards on behavioral intentions of bankers in Pakistan to embrace the green banking. This study applied the quantitative research methodology. The researchers selected bankers as the target population for their investigation, using a sample size of 367. The findings indicated that attitude has a substantial influence on behavioral intention. Internal assessments have a significant impact on behavioral intention. Findings indicated that perceived ability to regulate one's behavior had a significant influence on desire to engage in that activity. The findings of this current study have significant value for bankers, managers, customers &amp; legislators since they will empower them to make informed choices. The unique aspect of study is that, to researcher's knowledge there are relatively few studies that examine future the toward green banking</p> Shoaib Nisar Muhammad Mansoor Furqan Khan Copyright (c) 2023 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 5 2 750 760 10.53664/JSRD/04-04-2023-09-750-760 EXPLORING THE TECHNIQUES ABOUT COPING STRESS OF UNIVERSITY TEACHERS IN ACADEMIC ENVIRONMENT <p>This study examines the intricate landscape of stress coping mechanisms employed by university faculty, focusing upon evaluating, mitigating, and understanding the challenges within their academic milieu. So, this study aimed to examine these factors by targeting the lecturers, assistant and associate professors, and professors hailing from different universities. By using quantitative approach, survey was used by furnishing questionnaires aimed at objectives of the current study using a Likert scale. Unanimously, purpose of study is to determine coping strategies to overcome academic stress. The research also evaluates the main stressors &amp; their repercussions on physical health of faculty members. Findings highlight major stressors: student behaviors, administrative interdependence, and inter-colleague bonding. Time management emerges as the critical issue. Coping strategies commonly adopted include spending quality time with family and friends, engaging in shopping, and avoiding stress-inducing activities. The study comprehends well-being of university faculty members and improves the academic environment.</p> Farhana Qadeer Uzma Munawar Syed Zubair Haider Copyright (c) 2023 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 5 2 771 783 10.53664/JSRD/04-04-2023-11-771-783 GREEN STRATEGIES IN ACTION: ASSESSING ITS IMPACT ON ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE IN CONTEXT OF GREEN STRATEGIES <p>The purpose of this study, titled "green strategies in action," is to investigate the intricate relationship between green marketing, green leadership, and sustainability as mediator &amp; greenwashing as a moderator in relationships to organizational performance. Thus, quantitative surveys and qualitative interviews with corporate executives are used in conjunction with a mixed -methods approach in order to investigate the complex relationships that exist within environmental sustainability projects. Ultimately, the purpose of this study is to determine how green leadership and green marketing work together to have a synergistic effect on sustainability, which in turn has an effect on organizational performance. Moreover, research examines potential moderating influence of greenwashing, highlighting importance of real environmental commitment at the same time. The findings provide organizations with useful insights that can be used to navigate difficulties and possibilities allied with execution of effective green strategies. This helps organizations nurture holistic approach toward sustainable practices and organizational success.</p> Muhammad Akhtar Sherani Khalid Haseeb Syed Fahad Abbas Shah Copyright (c) 2023 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 5 2 738 749 10.53664/JSRD/04-04-2023-08-738-749 FINANCIAL TECHNOLOGY ADOPTION AND ORGANIZATIONAL COMPETITIVE PERFORMANCE: MEDIATING ROLE OF EMPLOYEE ENGAGEMENT <p>The study investigates impact of financial technology (FinTech) adoption on competitive performance of organizations with the specific focus on the mediating role of employee engagement. The primary purpose is to explore how adoption of FinTech tools and practices influences competitive edge of organizations, specifically over its effect on engaging employees in these technological advancements. Research employs quantitative methodology utilizing a questionnaire-based survey administered among employees of software houses in Lahore. Results revealed significant relationships amid variables. Adoption of FinTech significantly effects employee engagement and in turn, this heightened engagement positively affects organizational competitive performance. Research contributes to field by shedding light upon critical role of employee engagement as a mediator between FinTech adoption and organizational performance. Originality of study lies in its specific focus on software industry in Lahore and its unique investigation into mediating effect of employee engagement offering valued insights for both academics &amp; practitioners seeking to leverage FinTech for enhanced organizational competitiveness.</p> Qazi Shahab Azam Muhammad Zulqarnain Siddiqui Saima Yosufzai Copyright (c) 2023 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 5 2 729 737 10.53664/JSRD/04-04-2023-07-729-737 LIVING WITH DREAMS: A MULTIDIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS OF THE IDEAL LIFE PHENOMENON DURING DEVELOPMENTAL PROJECTS IN PAKISTAN <p>This research considers complex dynamics of life under ideal conditions in the context of development projects. Using a multidimensional analytical approach, this study explores other areas of interaction of social, economic, and environmental factors that seek an inclusive evaluation of aspirations and realities of communities undergoing change, including quantitative methods, of ideal phenomena of life. Understanding is about unraveling the complexities associated with understanding. The results are expected to contribute valuable insights into areas of development studies, urban planning, and community well-being, leading to excellent development of the variety of types of ideal living conditions in the context of aspirational development initiatives. That make a comprehensive assessment of desires and realities of communities in change through comprehensive evaluation of ideal phenomena of life, including qualitative &amp; quantitative methods. Results are likely to contribute valuable insights in areas of development studies, urban planning, and social welfare, which will provide excellent overview of various ideal situations in context of aspirational development initiatives.</p> Maria Ashraf Muhammad Waqas Tazmeen Fatima Copyright (c) 2023 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 5 2 719 728 10.53664/JSRD/04-04-2023-06-719-728 THE EFFECTS OF CO-CURRICULAR ACTIVITIES UPON STUDENTS’ ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENTS IN PAKISTAN <p>Involvement in co-curricular activities affects the academic performance of the students. Many studies have been carried out revealing the fact that co-curricular activities certainly affect academic achievement of students. The study was descriptive and all government girls’ secondary schools in were taken as samples by applying John Curry sample rule of thumb. The objectives of the study were to know the awareness, trends, and effects of stakeholders regarding co-curricular activities (communication skills) at the secondary school level. Data were collected through a questionnaire of a 5-point Likert scale. The collected data were statistically analyzed over SPSS by using the percentage, mean, standard deviation, and correlation. The conclusions were drawn which revealed that co-curricular activities have positive effects on students' academic achievement. Some suggestions were drawn for government of the time, education department, policy and decision-makers, school staff, parents and other students to support schools in all co-curricular activities to promote the students' quality education in Pakistan.</p> Shakila Bibi Abdul Basit Mudassir Hussain Copyright (c) 2023 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT 2023-12-28 2023-12-28 5 2 712 718 10.53664/JSRD/04-04-2023-05-712-718 UNLOCKING THE GROWTH IN DEVELOPING NATION: THE PIVOTAL ROLE AND MULTIFACETED BENEFITS OF SMEs IN PAKISTAN <p>There’s nothing wrong with staying small. You can do big things with small team. It is impossible to overstate the significance of the role that small and medium-sized businesses play in emerging countries. Due to fact that small and medium firms account for 40% of the country's GDP, Pakistan is nation that is making progress in the area of small and medium enterprises. Even at a low level, innovation in manufacturing firms has the potential to bring about improvements in performance of enterprises. A number of factors, include financial resources, human capital, strategic leadership, regulatory environment, risk tolerance, consumer feedback &amp; technological adoption, all play a part in determining the function that the innovation plays in this context. The strategies of random sampling that were utilized in order to acquire data from the managers and businesses of manufacturing concerns in Lahore, Pakistan. The study offered significant information and thus, by keeping a close check on innovation diffusion theory, this study will advise and assist the organization in paying attention towards the innovation. It will also help policymakers to better understand applicability of required innovation.</p> Zaryab Kubra Naqvi Abid Hussain Sujawal Hussain Copyright (c) 2023 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT 2023-12-27 2023-12-27 5 2 697 711 10.53664/JSRD/04-04-2023-04-697-711 THE HIGH-PERFORMANCE WORK SYSTEM & INNOVATIVE PERFORMANCES: MEDIATING ROLE OF VOICE OPPORTUNITY <p>In the context of higher education institutions in KP, Pakistan, this study examines complex relationship between High-Performance Work Systems (HPWS), employees' innovative performance, and mediating role of voice opportunity. For this purpose, a sample size of 304 academic members from was chosen universities. Results highlighted standing of giving employees a platform to communicate their thoughts and opinions and validate the mediating function of voice opportunity in the relationship between HPWS and employees' innovative performance. Study shows that HPWS adoption has a beneficial impact upon employees' inventive performance. Moreover, voice opportunity serves as the critical mediating factor, highlighting the significance of an atmosphere at work that is supportive of the employee engagement and feedback. The findings offer significant perspectives for academic administrators and legislators, for cultivating an environment at work towards inventive output. It also provides useful recommendations for maximizing innovative capacities in the KP, Pakistan's higher education sector.</p> Kamran Nawaz Hamid Khan Copyright (c) 2023 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT 2023-12-28 2023-12-28 5 2 656 668 10.53664/JSRD/04-04-2023-01-656-668 ADAPTING TO CYBERSECURITY CHALLENGES: ASSESSING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF INTERNATIONAL LAW AGAINST CYBER TERRORISM <p>The study critically examines current condition of global rule in resolving the developing hazard of cyber terrorism. The research dives right into the complexities and problems posed by cyber terrorism as well as reviews the effectiveness of existing lawful platforms in responding to this progressing threat. Employing a diverse series of academic jobs, the study investigates the requirements for brand-new global lawful frameworks, developments in cybercrime inspection as well as digital forensics, as well as the function of surfacing modern technologies in rule administration. Also, the report stresses the significance of enhancing global cyber resilience and response abilities by means of worldwide teamwork and collaboration. The study's searching highlights varied attributes of cyber violence and demand for a complete, collaborated, and international reaction to fight this threat. The analysis uses valuable knowledge right into advancement of brand-new lawful platforms, technologies in cybercrime examination &amp; enlargement of global cyber resilience to deal with problems positioned through cyber terrorism.</p> Syed Mohaddas Mahboob Syed Shair Abbas Iftikhar Ahmed Shaheen Copyright (c) 2023 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT 2023-12-27 2023-12-27 5 2 669 685 10.53664/JSRD/04-04-2023-02-669-685 PREDICTION OF TEACHERS’ PERFORMANCE THROUGH LEADERSHIP STYLES IN HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS <p>This article aimed to predict the teachers’ performance through leadership styles in developing countries like Pakistan. For this purpose, the survey approach was used by collecting data from the head of department and teachers hailing from southern region HEIs, KP, Pakistan. Correlation and regression analysis were sued to examine association and cause-&amp;-effect relationships that were validate through results from previous studies from literature. Teachers’ performance was predicted by assessing its association and impact with the transformational and transactional leadership styles. Results offered significant information in reaching conclusion and making decisions. It was concluded that significant association and impacts were found through SPSS. It was decided that leadership styles have significant association and impact on teachers’ performance in the higher educational context in Pakistani perspective. The study suggest that transformational leadership is more effective in predicting performances than transactional leadership style. The results offer significant clues for future researchers to conduct further studies.</p> Irfan Ullah Khan Farhat Ullah Khan Asad Ali Khan Copyright (c) 2023 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT 2023-12-26 2023-12-26 5 2 686 696 10.53664/JSRD/04-04-2023-03-686-696 A HOLISTIC SCENE DISPLACEMENT TO RESETTLEMENT: RESETTLER’S BEHAVIOR ADAPTABILITY AND INNER MOTIVATION: THE MIND ACCEPTS WHEN LIVES ARE SECURE <p>The human mind works on a pattern when he is living in a smooth pattern of his life. The role of behavior in case of resettlement cannot be neglected. This study investigated the resettler’s life well-being, inner motivation, and acceptability of their behavior. This study has been conducted on the affected people due to the Ghazi Barotha Hydro Power project in Pakistan. This data was collected from the 465 affected people who were relocated at different places through a questionnaire utilizing the survey approach. The random sampling techniques used, theoretical development drawn on the basis of the literature review, which was later tested by applying the positivism philosophy, The results of this study indicated that if physical and psychological needs and demands of the relocated are met, and along with inner motivation, their adaptability and acceptability of resettlement move in a positive direction. The objectives of studies were met, and this will be further helpful for policymakers, stakeholders, project authorities, and researchers.</p> Muhammad Jahangir Ashraf Adnan Ghani Muhammad Irfan Khan Copyright (c) 2023 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT 2023-12-16 2023-12-16 5 2 644 655 10.53664/JSRD/04-03-2023-10-644-655 THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TEACHERS’ OCCUPATIONAL STRESS AND LIFE SATISFACTION: THE ROLE OF RESILIENCE <p>The present study examined the impact of occupational stress on the life-satisfaction with mediating role of resilience in context of higher education institutions. To explore the effect of employees’ resilience in connecting the occupational stress and life satisfaction, the data were collected through convenient sampling from higher educational institutions teachers over a structured questionnaire and were analyzed statistically by using different tools as per the nature and requirements of study. The data analysis reveals that life satisfaction is important for the teachers to improve their living standards. The findings of study revealed significant association between predictor, mediation, and criterion variables whereas teachers’ resilience shows the mediating effect through full mediation. Therefore, the results are significant and offer new insights to existing database of knowledge as well as brings forth valuable suggestions to policymakers. Additionally, the recommendations of current study offer new research avenues to better understand the issues related to occupational stress and life satisfaction in different contexts.</p> Irfan Ullah Khan Farhat Ullah Khan Yasir Hayat Mughal Copyright (c) 2023 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT 2023-12-12 2023-12-12 5 2 632 643 10.53664/JSRD/04-03-2023-09-632-643 DYNAMICS OF DECISION-MAKING: FINANCIAL & HERDING BEHAVIOR EFFECTS ON RETAIL INVESTORS' INVESTMENT CHOICES: THE MODERATED MEDIATION APPROACH <p>The aim of this study is to investigate the intricate relationship between financial behavior, financial literacy, herding behavior, risk perception, and investment decision-making in specific environment of Pakistan Stock Exchange. To achieve the intended objective, study approach using cross-sectional design was used. A sample of 250 participants was selected in conventional financial institutions situated in Lahore. The data collecting procedure included the implementation of structured survey that used a five-point Likert scale. Data analysis used PLS-SEM. The results of study revealed statistically significant relationship between financial behaviors and both financial literacy and investment decision-making along with other desired relations. The results of mediation research suggest that there is a mediating effect of financial literacy on associations between financial behavior, herding behavior &amp; investment decision-making. Research has shown moderating effects that indicate presence of external variables that influence association amid financial behavior &amp; decision-making process in investing activities.</p> Muhammad Mansoor Aamir Sohail Nida Syed Copyright (c) 2023 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT 2023-11-12 2023-11-12 5 2 609 621 10.53664/JSRD/04-03-2023-07-609-621 THE TRANSFORMATIVE INFLUENCE OF VOCATIONAL SKILLS TRAINING ON THE WOMEN'S EMPOWERMENT <p>This study examines how the women's economic prospects are affected by vocational training, with main focus on employment, entrepreneurship and income. The study examines 120 respondents' viewpoints of how vocational training affects these vital dimensions of women's economic empowerment. The majority of respondents strongly agreed, according to findings, that vocational training has beneficial impact on income. Likewise, vocational training has a positive effect on women's entrepreneurship, according to respondents, highlighting its significance in advancing gender equality and economic independence. Some participants agree that the vocational training improves the women's career opportunities. The results offered significant information in reaching conclusion. This study highlights the need for specialized vocational training programs that take into account the varied needs and experiences of women, with consequences for both researchers and policymakers. This study advances existing conversation on women's economic empowerment and function of vocational training in creating inclusive communities by tackling these issues and exploring the new research directions.</p> Muhammad Arif Ubaid Ullah Palwasha Bibi Copyright (c) 2023 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT 2023-11-06 2023-11-06 5 2 597 608 10.53664/JSRD/04-03-2023-06-597-608 EXAMINING THE QUALITY OF EDUCATION BETWEEN PUBLIC & PEF SCHOOLS AT ELEMENTARY LEVEL IN SOUTHERN PUNAB <p>The study was designed to analyze the quality of education between public and PEF School at elementary level in southern Punjab. Main objective of the study was: To identify standard of quality education between Public and PEF school: To compare the quality of education between Public and PEF school. This research was quantitative and descriptive in nature. The target population was 120 Public &amp; PEF elementary schools in five districts (Bahawalpur, Bahawalnagar, Multan, Rahim Yar Khan &amp; Lodhran) of the southern Punjab. A sample size of 410 respondents was used over random sampling techniques. The results of study provide significant information in reaching the conclusion. The study concluded that Public &amp; PEF schools also provides teacher training programs to enhance the skills of teachers. The training programs provided by public and PEF schools have helped the concerned teachers to improve their teaching techniques, resulting in the better learning experience for the students. Therefore, it is essential to continue evaluating their efforts to ensure that all children have access to quality education.</p> Zohaib Ahmad Shaista Noreen Uzma Munawar Copyright (c) 2023 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT 2023-11-16 2023-11-16 5 2 622 631 10.53664/JSRD/04-03-2023-08-622-631 AN INVESTIGATION ON WORKPLACE INCIVILITY AND NON-WORK-RELATED PRESENTEEISM IN HEALTH CARE CENTRES <p>Presenteeism, the phenomenon in which individuals are physically present at work but fail to perform to their full capacity for a variety of reasons, has received substantial attention in recent years, particularly in healthcare industry. While considerable amount of research has focused on sickness-related presenteeism, there is scarcity of studies exploring non-job-related presenteeism, which encompasses behaviors such as disengagement from work or engaging in personal activities during work hours. Understanding the dynamics of non-work-related presenteeism is critical in Pakistan, a developing country with fast-expanding healthcare industry. This study aims to investigate impact of workplace incivility on non-work-related presenteeism and explore the moderating role of emotional intelligence in this relationship. A questionnaire-based survey was carried out with 315 health sector employees from various districts in Pakistan. The regression analysis was used to analyses data. The findings show a positive association between. This study adds to the limited body of knowledge on non-work-related presenteeism and gives useful insights for healthcare organizations in Pakistan and beyond.</p> Muhammad Imran Amjad Ali Hazrat Bilal Copyright (c) 2023 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT 2023-10-30 2023-10-30 5 2 589 596 10.53664/JSRD/04-03-2023-05-589-596 TRANSFORMING THE FUTURE OF FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS: CRITICAL ROLE OF ELECTRONIC RECRUITMENT, SELECTION AND EVALUATION <p>Banking sector has been progressively using electronic human resource management (E-HRM) practices with aim of optimizing and rationalizing human resource operations. Investigating how electronic human resource management (E-HRM) practices affect financial institutions' operational effectiveness is the major goal of this research. Data from a small sample of financial firms that have implemented E-HRM practices is gathered for the research, which employs quantitative technique. Using electronic methods for candidate recruitment &amp; selection and using e-evaluation approaches for employee performance assessment are examples of the aforementioned practices. According to recent research, banks' performance is significantly impacted by adoption of E-HRM practices. According to study's findings, E-Recruitment and e-selection have a significant impact on banks' overall performance. Furthermore, the results provide empirical backing for the significant impact that E-HR Evaluation has upon financial organizations' performance and effectiveness. The research is restricted toward Pakistan's conventional banks.</p> Maham Shoiab Sannia Saroosh Muhammad Raza Zafar Copyright (c) 2023 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT 2023-10-28 2023-10-28 5 2 558 569 10.53664/JSRD/04-03-2023-03-558-569 PIXELS AND POLICY: THE SYMBIOTIC RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DIGITALIZATION AND INTERNATIONAL TRADE LEGISLATION <p>In an era where digital frontier continually reshapes our jurisprudential landscape, this research embarks upon an odyssey to decipher its complex tapestry. Employing a qualitative approach, it delves deep into interplay between burgeoning data realms and legal scaffolds, drawing insights from extensive array of scholarly literature. The investigation unveils that confluence of data and law transcends mere operational shifts; it signals a profound transformation in our societal ethos. Findings underline the dual-edged nature of this evolution: while legal tech offers unparalleled chances for enhanced oversight and efficiency, it concurrently provokes challenges related to privacy &amp; surveillance. In conclusion, as we stand at cusp of this digital jurisprudential metamorphosis, it becomes imperious to cultivate a balance, imbuing legal structures with prowess of technology yet anchored by enduring tenets of justice and human rights. The suggestions include fostering interdisciplinary dialogues &amp; proactive regulatory frameworks, ensuring that our march into the digital future remains both the innovative and ethically grounded.</p> Hazrat Usman Fouzia khaliq Khawaja Hashim Shaheen Copyright (c) 2023 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT 2023-10-28 2023-10-28 5 2 570 588 10.53664/JSRD/04-03-2023-04-570-588 MEDIATING ROLE OF COGNITIVE RUMINATION AND CAREER INSECURITY ON RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN NURSES’ JOB SATISFACTION & TURNOVER INTENTION <p>This study aims to investigate the mediating effect of invasive rumination and career insecurity on relationship between nurses’ job satisfaction and turnover intention. Cross-sectional data were collected from nurses in the Qassim region working in primary healthcare centers and hospitals. Non-probability convenience sampling technique was utilized to obtain 372 participants who completed questionnaire, and SPSS was used to analyze the data. To test the hypotheses, correction and multiple regressions were used. Results revealed that all factors of job satisfaction were significantly related to turnover intention. Also, except for interpersonal relationships, all factors had a significant impact on turnover intention of nurses. Besides, invasive rumination and career insecurity has mediated the relationship amid predictor job satisfaction and criterion turnover intention. Hospitals management must pay attention and support SV nurses to reduce turnover intention. In current crisis, no healthcare organizations afford the turnover intention. For this drive, management must discourage invasive rumination and career insecurity and inspire active rumination, career development, skills, learning environment and perceived organizational support to retain the nurses for longer term.</p> Mohammad Faleh Alharbi Copyright (c) 2023 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT 2023-09-02 2023-09-02 5 2 542 557 10.53664/JSRD/04-03-2023-02-542-557 MATERIAL MANAGEMENT AND COST-EFFECTIVE PROJECT: TREATMENT OF EXPENSIVE SOIL BY UTILIZATION OF LIME IN PAKISTAN <p>The study is conducted to evaluate the material management with respect to cost effectiveness regarding soil utilization of lime project, and the potential applicability of the materials as Pozzallans in Pakistan. Lime (L) was applied to soil at concentrations of 5%, 10%, and 15% based on the soil's dry weight. The study focused on analyzing physical properties &amp; behaviors of untreated and treated soil, specifically emphasizing volume change. After conducting experimental program, we have obtained results for specific gravity, moisture to dry the density ratio, unconfined compressive strength (UCS), and swelling potential. The study's results offer important information wherein the most significant result is that behaviors of swelling &amp; decreasing were significantly improved. Ultimately, it was concluded that using 10% lime solution yielded most significant outcomes. To achieve effectiveness, combining it with porous soils &amp; compact it under light loads is necessary to take under consideration. Finally, it is concluded that the cost may reduce and quality of the project may be enhanced of the project by implementing the project management in pure essence.</p> Hafiz Rana Muazzam Ali Ibrahim Khan Shahan Mehmood Cheema Copyright (c) 2023 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT 2023-06-29 2023-06-29 5 2 522 532 10.53664/JSRD/04-02-2023-25-522-532 UNTANGLING THE WEB OF LOSS: AN INSIGHT INTO EXPERIENCES OF LIVE-IN GIRL CHILD DOMESTIC WORKERS IN LAHORE <p>This study uses Rebecca Elliot's theory of Sociology of loss to examine the challenges faced by the young female live-in domestic workers in Pakistani homes. A substantial number of children, including majority of girls, are hired to do domestic work despite being against the law. Qualitative research was carried out to investigate the Elliot's framework comprises four interrelated dimensions of loss: the materiality of loss; politics of loss; knowledge of loss; and practices of loss. Data was collected from 21 young girls over in-depth interviews using open-ended questions. The data were analyzed through the thematic analysis technique. The results show that participants experienced a range of losses with multiple emotional, social, and physical implications for the study participants. Our study highlights the underrepresented voices of marginalized young girls and advances scholarly discussions on the many facets of loss, social inequality, gender, and child labor. This paper provides both theoretical &amp; practical understanding &amp; contribute to understanding and policy development for Sustainable Development Goal 8.7, which aims to end child labor in all of its forms, &amp; actively works to attain SDGs related to education and health.</p> Rahla Rahat Asma Yunus Fouzia Sadaf Copyright (c) 2023 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT 2023-06-29 2023-06-29 5 2 508 521 10.53664/JSRD/04-02-2023-24-508-521 IMPACT OF STRATEGIC FLEXIBILITY ON CRISIS MANAGEMENT: EXAMINING THE MEDIATING ROLE OF COGNITIVE ABILITY <p>This study explored impact of Strategic flexibility on crisis management and also examined the mediating role of cognitive ability of decision makers in telecommunication sector of Amman, Jordan. This study was quantitative &amp; cross-sectional by using the deductive approach and positivist philosophy. Primary data acquired through instrument based on close-ended questions. There were five relevant range of choices for agreement and disagreement. Data acquired by simple random sampling that is component of probability sampling from the target population. A total of 352 Managers and Assistant Managers were identified as the sample size out of 3500 total population at margin of error 5% and confidence level 95%. (Krejcie &amp; Morgan, 1970). Data analyzed and interpreted by SPSS and PLS-SEM. Descriptive analysis performed by SPSS and model measurement and verification performed by PLS-SEM. There were 5-objectives that were accomplished by developing &amp; testing 5-hypotheses. All direct relationships tested positive and significant amid independent &amp; dependent variables. The study approved mediating role between CA, SF and CM.</p> Eman Khaled Irtaimeh Amer Abdulaziz Al-Mannai Tauqeer Hussain Hakro Copyright (c) 2023 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT 2023-06-29 2023-06-29 5 2 499 507 10.53664/JSRD/04-02-2023-23-499-507 COMPARISON OF SERVICE QUALITY BETWEEN PUBLIC & PRIVATE HOSPITALS: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM SAUDI ARABIA <p>Saudi Arabia is rapidly changing especially the health sector is making reforms to enhance service quality of the hospitals. This study aimed to investigate difference in service quality rendered by public and private hospitals in Qassim region of Saudi Arabia. This is a cross-sectional study. Quantitative research design was adopted. Primary data was collected. Non-probability convenience sampling technique was used to select the sample. Data was analyzed in SPSS. Frequency, percentage, independent sample t-test were used to analyze data. In order to check reliability and validity of the questionnaire, the Cronbach alpha and factor loadings were checked. The findings revealed that questionnaire was found reliable and valid as Cronbach alpha and loadings met threshold. Moreover, significant difference is found in service quality of public and private hospitals. The patients are found more satisfied from public hospitals service quality as compared to private hospitals in Qassim region. Policy makers can take benefits from findings of current study. Enhancing service quality would help hospitals to get competitive advantage. Moreover, future studies may use big sample size and can conduct comparative study using SERVQUAL and SERVPERF model</p> Yasir Hayat Mughal Copyright (c) 2023 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT 2023-08-12 2023-08-12 5 2 533 541 10.53664/JSRD/04-03-2023-01-533-541 EXPLORING HOUSEHOLDS’ FINANCIAL PLANNING: A QUALITATIVE STUDY IN PAKISTAN <p>The aim of this study is to investigate the factors that influence household financial planning in Punjab, Pakistan, as well as how Pakistani households carry it out. It contributes to the body of knowledge on household financial planning in Pakistani cultural contexts, norms, and values. To achieve the objective, study employs qualitative research methods. Purposive sampling technique is used for selection of respondents. A total of 38 Semi-structured interviews are conducted via telephone. Thematic analysis is performed for data analysis. Results found demographics (income level, source of income, number of family members, having kids and age) and macro-economic factor (inflation) as major determinants of the household financial planning. Results found that household follow mental accounting while planning. Results offer valued insight for financial institutions to tailor financial education programs, policy makers to develop appropriate policies that support better financial decision making, and households themselves for their financial well beings. Despite its valuable contributions, study has certain limitations and future research directions.</p> Ume Habibah Mujeeb-U-Rehman Bhayo Copyright (c) 2023 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT 2023-06-29 2023-06-29 5 2 489 498 10.53664/JSRD/04-02-2023-22-489-498 UNVEILING THE CATALYSTS OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENTS: EXPLORING DYNAMIC LINK BETWEEN FOREIGN REMITTANCES AND KEY INDICATORS IN SOUTH ASIA <p>The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between foreign remittances and economic development, specifically examining their impact on GDP per capita growth, significance of workers' remittances in economic growth, influence of remittances on Gross Capital Formation Ratio, the effect of remittances on household final consumption expenditure, relationships between remittances and trade as the percentage of GDP, and the effects of remittances on population growth. The researcher selected six countries in South Asia as the sample for this study. The panel data was used to test the relationship between the observed variables, employing both random and fixed effect models to test study's hypotheses. Findings revealed a positive relationship between the growth of foreign remittances and indicators such as GDP per capita, the overall economic growth, gross capital creation, and household consumption spending. These results thus highlight the significant influence that the remittances have had on Pakistan's economic indices and underscore the importance of remittance flows for the growth and stability of the Pakistani economy.</p> Muhammad Manazir Mutee Ur Rahman Muhammad Naeem Anjum Copyright (c) 2023 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT 2023-06-29 2023-06-29 5 2 480 488 10.53664/JSRD/04-02-2023-21-480-488 NEXUS BETWEEN INSTITUTIONAL QUALITY, EMPLOYMENT, TRADE OPENNESS & CO2 EMISSIONS: A PANEL ARDL ANALYSIS <p>This study employs a panel autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) approach to investigate the relationships between employment, institutional quality, trade openness, and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The analysis focuses on period from 2002 to 2021, encompassing top ten CO2-emitting countries: the United States, China, India, Japan, Russia, Iran, Germany, Saudi Arabia, South Korea, and Indonesia. Study explores how institutional frameworks, in conjunction with economic factors impact environmental outcome. Research emphasizes the potential of strong institutional quality to stimulate the trade, economic growth, and improvements in quality of life. Models developed in study predict an increase in CO2 emissions linked with higher institutional quality, economic development, energy consumption, industrialization, and trade openness. The findings highlight a significant correlation between the variables of institutional quality (IQ), employment (EMP), &amp; trade openness (IMP) and CO2 levels over the long term. By employing a comprehensive panel ARDL approach, this study provides valuable insights into intricate relationships between institutional quality, employment, trade openness, &amp; CO2 emissions.</p> Ahtasham Ahmad Waqas Ali Asad Ur Rehman Copyright (c) 2023 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT 2023-06-29 2023-06-29 5 2 468 479 10.53664/JSRD/04-02-2023-20-468-479 ASSESSMENT OF CORPORATE GOVERNANCE PRACTICES & ITS IMPACT ON FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE: A CASE OF BANKING SECTOR OF PAKISTAN <p>The primary aim of this study is to examine the impact of governance system on financial performance of various financial institutions, with a particular emphasis on banks. The data utilized in this quantitative research study was gathered from diverse sources, such as annual reports and other pertinent sources. Study's target population comprised of 34 scheduled banks listed in Pakistan, which are conventional in the nature and have numerous branches spread across country. Sample included both Islamic banks and conventional banks with Islamic windows. The research employed secondary data sourced from the annual reports of banks and financial institution websites. A dataset consisting of panel data covering a six-year period from 2018 to 2022 was gathered and analyzed using both the descriptive and inferential statistical methods. The findings of this study indicated that there is a significant effect of all observed corporate governance practices on financial performance of banks. This will aid them in creating &amp; executing well-organized corporate governance structures that promote long-term performance and durability of financial institutions.</p> Muhammad Ali Mufti Muhammad Arshad Faheem Ather Haqqani Copyright (c) 2023 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT 2023-06-29 2023-06-29 5 2 457 467 10.53664/JSRD/04-02-2023-19-457-467 UNLOCKING THE INVESTMENT PUZZLE: THE INFLUENCE OF BEHAVIORAL BIASES & MODERATING ROLE OF FINANCIAL LITERACY <p>This study aims to investigate the influence of behavioral biases on investors' investment decisions and explore the moderating role of financial literacy in this relationship. Research adopts quantitative approach, utilizing a survey questionnaire distributed among a sample of individual investors actively trading in Pakistan stock exchange. Survey assesses prominent behavioral biases like overconfidence, disposition effect, risk-aversion bias, and herding behavior, while measuring participants' level of financial literacy. Findings of study proves significant impact of behavioral biases on investors' decisions. Respondents validate prevalence of shared biases, including overconfidence, disposition effect, risk-aversion bias, and herding behavior. These biases tend to influence the decision-making process of investors, leading to suboptimal investment choices. Results suggest that financial literacy plays moderating role in linking behavioral biases and investment decisions. The implications of findings suggest importance of promoting financial literacy amid investors over guidance and support of financial professionals, ultimately improving quality of investment decision-making.</p> Shahid Kalim Khan Najam Ul Hassan Javeria Islam Copyright (c) 2023 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT 2023-06-29 2023-06-29 5 2 433 444 10.53664/JSRD/04-02-2023-17-433-444 ENHANCING BRAND IDENTIFICATION THROUGH CONSUMER SELF-EFFICACY: MEDIATING ROLE OF CONSUMER VANITY AND MODERATING ROLE OF BRAND PERSONALITY <p>This study aims to examine influence of consumer self-efficacy on consumer brand identification, with a focus on the mediating role of consumer vanity and the moderating role of brand personality. A total of 384 participants, encompassing consumers of diverse brands, were included in the study. The variables of interest, consumer self-efficacy, consumer brand identification, consumer vanity &amp; brand personality, were analyzed via PLS-SEM software. The results reveal a significant direct impact of consumer self-efficacy on consumer brand identification, highlighting the importance of individuals' belief in their abilities in fostering strong connection with a brand. Moreover, the study proves that consumer vanity acts as a mediator between consumer self-efficacy &amp; brand identification, indicating that individuals with higher self-belief are more likely to engage in vanity-related behaviors, thereby enhancing their identification with brand. The study uncovers moderating effect of brand personality by strengthening relationship between consumer self-efficacy and brand identification.</p> Ahmad Tisman Pasha Fatima Shahid Muhammad Shaukat Malik Copyright (c) 2023 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT 2023-06-29 2023-06-29 5 2 445 456 10.53664/JSRD/04-02-2023-18-445-456 GREEN HRM & JOB PERFORMANCE: UNVEILING PATHWAY THROUGH JOB SATISFACTION <p>This study aims to investigate relationship between Green Human Resource Management (GHRM) practices and job performance, while examining the mediating role of job satisfaction. GHRM practices focus upon integrating the environmentally sustainable practices into the human resource policies and procedures. The study used quantitative research design, with data collected through structured questionnaire from a sample of employees across various industries. The statistical techniques like correlation analysis and regression analysis were employed to analyze the data. The results of study revealed a positive &amp; significant relationship amid GHRM practices &amp; job performance, indicating that organizations that implement environmentally friendly HR practices tend to have higher job performance levels among their employees. Findings indicated that job satisfaction partially mediates relationship amid GHRM practices &amp; job performance. organizations should prioritize creation of work environment that promotes job satisfaction amid employees. This can be realized by providing chances for employee involvement, recognition, and growth, among other factors.</p> Sardar Asim Naseer Salma Mukhtar Maria Gul Copyright (c) 2023 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT 2023-06-29 2023-06-29 5 2 410 419 10.53664/JSRD/04-02-2023-15-410-419 AN EXAMINATION ON THEMATIC ANALYSIS REGARDING THE CHILDREN’S TELEVISION EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS <p>This research study is investigating the themes of educational children TV programs broadcasted by Nickelodeon, and Disney. Data has been collected by adopting the content analysis and textual analysis method. Children TV educational programs are designed intentionally to impart the learning and education for the children in a colorful, and entertaining manner. They are produced intentionally to impart education, and problem-solving skills. This research study is exploring the educational children TV program themes in frame of education entertainment theory. This study highlighted important issues wherein results offered significant information for reaching conclusion and extracting certain recommendations. This study will provide an insight that what kind of educational children TV programs were broadcasted, the improvements and changings required for the betterment of the children TV entertainment activity. This study has proven that the children are learning education, problem solving skills and entertainment from these educational children TV programs.</p> Huma Khan Nimra Yasmeen Nimra Sadiq Copyright (c) 2023 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT 2023-06-29 2023-06-29 5 2 420 432 10.53664/JSRD/04-02-2023-16-420-432 THE IMPACT OF MACROECONOMIC INDICATORS ON BITCOIN: A CASE STUDY ON PAKISTAN <p>Modern-day revolution is brought on by cryptocurrencies. Both the terms cryptocurrency &amp; currency describe means of exchanging goods &amp; services. In system that uses cryptocurrencies, every transaction is preprogrammed. Underlying blockchain technology governs transactions by using consensus mechanisms, hash algorithms, and public and private key encryption, doing away with the need for user to have faith in the counterparty. In this study, impact of macro-factors on bitcoin in Pakistan was examined. The relevance of this study is that the majority of people are ignorant of bitcoin to spread awareness of bitcoin and how to use them among the general audience. The macroeconomic indicators (GDP, INF, Exchange, &amp; Gold) were monitored on a quarterly basis between JAN 2016 and DEC 2021. The E-view program and numerous tests on secondary data were also used in this inquiry. In Pakistan, there is no long-term link. Bitcoin's short-term relationships with Pakistan's GDP, INF, ER, and gold. In short term, there is a link between bitcoin and the exchange rate.</p> Momna Gul Shumaila Hashim Asma Hayat Copyright (c) 2023 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT 2023-06-29 2023-06-29 5 2 400 409 10.53664/JSRD/04-02-2023-14-400-409 IN THE REALM OF THE MACHINES: AI'S INFLUENCE UPON INTERNATIONAL LAW AND POLICY <p>Delving into the intricate nexus between the artificial intelligence (AI) and international law and policy, this research paper embarks on an intellectual exploration of AI's metamorphosis, multifaceted application &amp; far-reaching consequences across diverse realms such as warfare, surveillance and climate change mitigation. In this regard, illuminating the pressing imperative for malleable international legal frameworks and global collaboration towards harness AI's boons whilst counterbalancing its perils, the study also lays bare its constraints primarily its expansive scope coupled with swiftly transforming AI milieu that might render the findings obsolete. Current study highlighted the important issues with the aim to produce new information and contribute the existing knowledge database. This intellectual odyssey culminates in a call-to-arms for the future investigations to scrutinize minute facets of AI's impact on the worldwide legislation and strategies a steppingstone towards deciphering the enigmatic dance between the technology as well as global governance.</p> Hazrat Usman Iqra Tariq Bushra Nawaz Copyright (c) 2023 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT 2023-06-29 2023-06-29 5 2 383 399 10.53664/JSRD/04-02-2023-13-383-399 THE IMPACT OF POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGICAL CAPITAL ON ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT IN PUBLIC SECTOR UNIVERSITIES OF KPK <p>The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of psychological capital upon organizational commitment within public sector universities in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The research sample consisted of 2074 teachers from seven public sector universities in region, with a sample size of 335 teachers selected by using simple random sampling technique. In this regard, data analysis involved the utilization of Pearson correlation, linear regression, and multiple regression techniques. Finding revealed a positive and significant relationship between psychological capital and organizational commitment. The results offered significant information in reaching the desired leading conclusion and extracting certain recommendations for policy-makers and future researchers. Based on these results, it is recommended that university teachers should be provided with opportunities for professional &amp; academic growth to foster the development of psychological capital, which ultimately results in enhancing the overall quality of education within the educational system.</p> Samina Owais Allah Noor Khan Zafar Khan Copyright (c) 2023 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT 2023-06-29 2023-06-29 5 2 372 382 10.53664/JSRD/04-02-2023-12-372-382 ROLE OF META-COGNITIVE AWARENESS & PROCRASTINATION IN GENDER AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF UNIVERSITY STUDENTS <p>Few of learners cannot complete their academic tasks not because that they are unintelligent or dull, however because of postponement in completion of academic tasks and it is due to procrastination. This research study focused on exploring meta-cognitive awareness and procrastination and its effect on students’ achievement. Quantitative approach with survey technique was employed. Sample comprised of 700 students studying at undergraduate and postgraduate programs in HEIs, selected by paying multistage sampling. The instruments applied in present analysis were Metacognitive Awareness Inventory organized and standardized by (Schraw &amp; Dennison, 1994) and Aitken Procrastination Inventory (Aitken, 1982) Results showed there exists significant difference in the meta-cognitive awareness and procrastination of students based on gender. It was found that there was a significant influence of meta-cognitive awareness in addition to procrastination on educational achievement of undergraduates &amp; postgraduates in HEIs of Islamabad. So, it was suggested that students of various disciplines should be taught many strategies &amp; procedures.</p> Umar Amin Khan Muhammad Iqbal Razzaq Ahmad Copyright (c) 2023 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT 2023-06-29 2023-06-29 5 2 339 351 10.53664/JSRD/04-02-2023-10-339-351 IMPACT OF ORGANIZATIONAL TRUST ON ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE OF ACADEMICIANS: AN EVIDENCE FROM HEIs’ KP, PAKISTAN <p>The organization's performance is typically an amalgamation of a number of characteristics that, when combined together produce organization’s overall performance. Every organization strives to achieve its stated objectives while giving serious concern to its ability to preserve its existence and profitability over the long term. Organizational trust is considered as a crucial factor to enhance employees’ performance and in turn organizational performance. The present study aimed to investigate the association and cause-and-effect relationships of organizational trust with organizational performance among the faculty members in context of HEIs in southern regions of KP, Pakistan. The data was collected from respondents through close-ended questionnaire. 313 faculty members from HEIs were surveyed. Results revealed a significant association &amp; cause-and-effect relationships amid organizational trust and organizational performance. At the end, some valuable recommendations to policymakers of HEIs are offered. Additionally, some suggestions for future researchers are also provided by the researchers on the bases of current study findings</p> Ahmad Ali Rafid Ullah Tufail Nawaz Copyright (c) 2023 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT 2023-06-29 2023-06-29 5 2 316 326 10.53664/JSRD/04-02-2023-08-316-326 ASSESSMENT OF INVESTORS' INVESTMENT BEHAVIOUR: MEDIATING EFFECT OF RISK TOLERANCE: A CASE OF PAKISTAN STOCK EXCHANGE <p>This study aims to investigate the role of risk tolerance as a mediator in the investment choices of retail investors on Pakistan Stock Exchange. Research addresses criticisms of the descriptive theories in behavioral economics and emphasizes the importance of understanding factors that impact consumers' financial decisions for a more efficient and stable financial system. The study analyzes organizational, personal, and market factors to determine relative significance. Sample for this study consists of individual investors actively trading on Pakistan Stock Exchange. The findings indicate that individual investors' investment behavior is mainly swayed by market factors, personal characteristics, and organizational context. Study findings hold value for various stakeholders, including investors, brokerage companies, managers, and government officials. By utilizing these findings to inform their decision-making processes, these stakeholders can make more informed choices. Thus, understanding the role of risk tolerance and the influence of different factors contributes to development of a stronger and more knowledgeable financial system.</p> Waqas Patras Akhtar Rasool Muhammad Idrees Copyright (c) 2023 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT 2023-06-29 2023-06-29 5 2 305 315 10.53664/JSRD/04-02-2023-07-305-315 THE PREDICTIVE ROLE OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE TOWARDS SHAPING ENTREPRENEURIAL INTENTION OF UNIVERSITY GRADUATES <p>Current study is an endeavor to empirically test predictive role of emotional intelligence towards shaping entrepreneurial intention of public sector universities graduates of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Total 352 business administration students of final year enrolled in diverse public sector higher educational institutions were surveyed for this purpose. Reason behind choosing this particular target population was because they are just having to complete their academic journey and will have to seriously think about the career option they will have to choose in their professional life. For data collection, questionnaire was used as instrument having Likert type question. As target population of current study is homogeneous hence simple random sampling technique was employed to choose respondents among targeted population. In this regard, measures were adopted from previous literature. Scale reliability, validity, correlation and linear regression were employed as data analyses satirical tools. Results revealed that emotional intelligence playing significant role in predicting entrepreneurial intention of university graduates.</p> Tufail Nawaz Rafid Ullah Ahmad Ali Copyright (c) 2023 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT 2023-06-29 2023-06-29 5 2 293 304 10.53664/JSRD/04-02-2023-06-293-304 AN INVESTIGATION ON FACTORS AFFECTING HEALTH CARE EXPENDITURES: THE CASE OF PAKISTAN <p>In order to complete this study on factors affecting health care expenditures, we collected the annual data from 1972 to 2020 in order to assess the factors affecting health care expenses. The time series data frequently have unit root problem, which is present in data utilized in this study. It was scientifically proven by Eigen value test results that there is a causal relationship between health expenditures and the factors affecting those expenses. The Johansen co-integration approach has been used to examine long-term relationship between the variables. The study's conclusion is that access to health care in Pakistan is both a need and a luxury. Health care costs in Pakistan are being significantly impacted by urbanization. The number of doctors and hospital beds per 1000 people has a beneficial impact on health care costs. People under the age of ten and those who are older are more vulnerable and are having a favorable impact on health costs. The results offered the significant information in reaching the conclusion and offering suggestions to the policy makers and future researchers.</p> Muhammad Khizar Hayat Ahmar Jamshaid Neelam Sultana Copyright (c) 2023 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT 2023-06-29 2023-06-29 5 2 352 371 10.53664/JSRD/04-02-2023-11-352-371 THE EFFECTS OF SCHOOL ENVIRONMENT ON ETHICAL SOCIALIZATION OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN PUNJAB <p>The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of school environment on ethical socialization of secondary school students. The research employed an observational survey design, utilizing cross-sectional technique to gather data. A self-developed questionnaire was used to collect information from 132 randomly selected school heads (66 from government boys' secondary schools and 66 from government girls' secondary schools) regarding their respective school environments. The quantitative data collected were coded and analyzed using inferential and descriptive statistics over SPSS software. The qualitative data underwent thematic analysis, &amp; codes were assigned. The findings revealed a statistically significant difference in the existence of factors within the school environment based on administrative experience of school heads. Besides, a strong relationship was observed between the school environment and students' ethical socialization, indicating significant impact of the school environment on students' ethical development that provides the clues to policy-makers for revisiting their policies along with direction toward future research.</p> Asghar Ali Gill Muhammad Hameed Nawaz Copyright (c) 2023 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT 2023-06-29 2023-06-29 5 2 327 338 10.53664/JSRD/04-02-2023-09-327-338 ENHANCING PERFORMANCE THROUGH TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT: UNVEILING THE MEDIATING INFLUENCE OF KNOWLEDGE TRANSFER <p>In today's dynamic and competitive business environment, the organizations strive to attain superior performance by executing effective management strategies. One such strategy that has gained significant attention is Total Quality Management (TQM). This study aims to delve into the relationship between TQM and organizational performance, with a specific focus on the mediating effects of knowledge transfer. Drawing on comprehensive review of literature and empirical analysis, this research investigates the impact of TQM practices upon organizational performance, considering the crucial role played by knowledge transfer mechanisms. The study employs quantitative research design, collecting data from a manufacturing SME’s operating in Lahore, Pakistan. SEM is used to analyze data and test proposed hypotheses. The findings shed light on the significant positive relationship amid TQM &amp; organizational performance, highlighting vital role of knowledge transfer as a mediating mechanism. The organizations that aim to improve performance should focus not only on implementing TQM practices but on establishing effective knowledge transfer mechanisms.</p> Muhammad Arif Bhatti Umar Akbar Muhammad Ahmar Jamshaid Copyright (c) 2023 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT 2023-06-29 2023-06-29 5 2 284 292 10.53664/JSRD/04-02-2023-05-284-292 IMPACT OF FINANCIAL LITERACY ON FINANCIAL SATISFACTION: MEDIATING ROLES OF INVESTMENT DECISIONS & MODERATING ROLE OF RISK ATTITUDE <p>The present research attempts to investigate relationship between financial literacy and financial satisfaction, with the specific emphasis on intervening and moderating roles of investment decisions and risk attitude. The research employs a structural equation modelling (SEM) methodology to examine the proposed associations, using survey data from subset of individuals who have previously made decisions regarding investments. The results indicate that financial behavior and literacy have a positive and significant effect upon financial satisfaction and individual investment decisions. Also, individual investment decisions were found to have a positive and significant effect on financial satisfaction. The relationship between financial literacy, financial behavior, and financial satisfaction was found to be mediated by individual investment decisions. Moderating role of risk attitude was observed between financial literacy, financial behavior, and individual investment decisions. The study highlights standing of attaining high-level financial literacy and making smart investment decisions to rise financial satisfaction for individual, corporate, and real investors.</p> Muhammad Arslan Iqbal Ahmad Saeed Shafiq Ur Rehman Copyright (c) 2023 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT 2023-06-29 2023-06-29 5 2 274 283 10.53664/JSRD/04-02-2023-04-274-283 EXAMINING MACROECONOMIC FACTORS & CAPITAL STRUCTURE CHOICES IN PAKISTAN'S MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY: AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS <p>A company's financing choice is the influenced by both internal and external factors, with empirical research typically focusing more upon internal factors and less upon macroeconomic variables, mainly in emerging countries. This study aims to examine the macroeconomic factors that affect capital structure decisions in manufacturing industry in Pakistan, using data from the past decade (2012-2022). Study uses many models, including POLS, fixed effect, random effect and Hausman test, to analyze impact of macroeconomic factors on capital structure choices of listed manufacturing firms in Pakistan. Results indicate that GDP growth rate, corporate tax, and interest rate have negative link with financial leverage, but exchange rates, stock market development and public debt have a positive association with financial leverage. Study acmes upright of macroeconomic variables in evolving manufacturing sector in Pakistan, about stock market development, corporate taxes, &amp; exchange rates. This study be useful for shareholders in determining proper investment and financing sources, and for financial leaders in determining the optimal level of capital structure.</p> Farhad Hussain Sun Jianfu Muhammad Kamran Copyright (c) 2023 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT 2023-06-29 2023-06-29 5 2 252 261 10.53664/JSRD/04-02-2023-02-252-261 ANALYZING RACIAL PROPAGANDA AGAINST SOCIO-CREATIVE PERSPECTIVE IN SELECTED POEMS OF COUNTEE CULLEN AND LANGSTON HUGHES <p>The social purpose of art expands its value and significance to problematize many social and political situations of day rather than limiting it to idea of aesthetic pleasure alone. African American philosophers, poets, and authors also attempt to project the issues of race and culture country is facing. They made an effort to create a strong literary framework despite various attempts at discrediting the significance of art and artists on global scale. Considering Alain Lock's idea of ‘Real art or Propaganda’ this paper examines true values of African American literature and takes it a step further to recognize the attempts made via literature to project their rights and preserve their culture and history. This influence never strays from true purpose of art and results in meaningful poems that appeal to human emotion and feelings on a universal level. They have historically given more weight to universal purpose of art, which is to arouse pleasure, and have utilized this as a platform to expose the systematic goal that disadvantages and presents negative picture of African American community.</p> Abrar Ahmed Faisal Sajjad Nabeela Gul Copyright (c) 2023 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT 2023-06-29 2023-06-29 5 2 262 273 10.53664/JSRD/04-02-2023-03-262-273 IMPACT OF TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP UPON PHYSICIANS & NURSES PERFORMANCE IN SAUDI HEALTHCARE ORGANIZATIONS <p>Leaders hold important positions in organizations and responsible to achieve objectives and targets on time. For this purpose, they need highly motivated and professional team by using vision, charismatic personality, &amp; motivation skills to enhance the performance. Organizations faces difficult times such as low level of performance, commitment, &amp; involvement, in such cases leaders have to apply transformational leadership style to boost the physicians and nurses’ performance. The aim of current study was to investigate the impact of transformational leadership on performance as populations of current study were physicians and nurses employed by Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. The simple random sampling technique as used to select sample size. 450 questionnaires were distributed and 407 were received and used in analysis. PLS-SEM was used for analysis of data. Findings revealed that all scales met threshold and out of 4 hypotheses 3 are accepted. Idealized influence have significant role on enhancing performance but stimulation, consideration &amp; motivation play significant role in increasing the physicians and nurses’ performance in healthcare organizations.</p> Yasir Hayat Mughal Copyright (c) 2023 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT 2023-06-29 2023-06-29 5 2 241 251 10.53664/JSRD/04-02-2023-01-241-251 IMPACT OF LEADERSHIP STYLE ON JOB PERFORMANCE OF EMPLOYEES: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF BANKING SECTOR <p>The study is conducted on comparative analyses of public &amp; private banking sector of Pakistan, with the focus upon leadership styles and employees job performance. To assess the effects of leadership style on job performance of employees of public and private banking sectors, are the major objectives. Secondly, to assess effect of leadership style on job performance of female’s and male’s employees in both sectors. Study is quantitative in nature and conducted upon employees of Govt and private banking sector of Punjab. Information was collected from 200 employees of the banking sector, i.e. 100 each respondent from private and Govt baking sectors. Google document an online platform is used to approach targeted respondents from population. Positive effects of leadership style were found on job performance of male’s employees, as compared to female employees. It is concluded that leadership styles have substantial effects upon the job performance of rural workers of banking sector, and leadership styles have more impact upon private sector banking employees as compared to public sector. From results, it is concluded that such types of studies are vital and must be conducted at large scale with some other factors.</p> Mudassar Khan Naimatullah Shah Ayaz Ahmed Chachar Copyright (c) 2023 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT 2023-03-31 2023-03-31 5 2 229 240 10.53664/JSRD/04-01-2023-20-229-240 DEMOCRACY, DICTATORSHIP OR HYBRIDITY: AN INCESSANT LABYRINTH OF PAKISTANI POLITICAL HISTORY <p>The term hybrid regime has recently become very popular in the Pakistani politics. Not many people outside the select group of political scientists were even aware of concept only a decade ago. This paper discusses this concept in detail in context of Pakistan’s political history to prove that hybrid regime is not an anomaly but a norm in Pakistan’s political system and that Pakistan’s regimes throughout the history were neither pure democracies nor absolute stratocracies. It proves that from inception till this day Pakistan has always had hybrid regimes. Government is framed apparently by civilian political people, but somewhere the role of establishment in governmental affairs is absolutely undeniable. This study aimed to explore the leading issues that are considered as significant contributors towards the political regime along with its implication towards desired change. In this connection, present study uses the qualitative content analysis technique for data analysis for finding the answers of the research questions and reaching the desired conclusion of study. Thus, the findings reveals that the government in Pakistan is neither liberal democracy nor authoritarian rather; the government in our country is hybrid regime.</p> Athar Farooq Abrar Ahmed Zeeshan Shajehan Copyright (c) 2023 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT 2023-03-31 2023-03-31 5 2 217 228 10.53664/JSRD/04-01-2023-19-217-228 ACHIEVING SUSTAINABLE BUSINESS PERFORMANCE THROUGH GREEN TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP, GREEN INNOVATION & CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY <p>There are numerous approaches to sustainability; one of them is the notion of green economy. Society is more aware of business operations' environmental impact since industrial operations contribute to environmental imbalance. Small and medium enterprises (SMEs) act as a catalyst for the development of economy. The current study examines impact of green transformational leadership (GTL), green innovation (GI), and corporate social responsibility (CSR) on sustainable business performance (SBP). Sample size of this study was 500, selected with help of the purposive sampling technique, and 319 responses were saved &amp; used for analysis. Managers of diverse departments were respondents who were linked with small &amp; medium enterprises (SMEs) operating in Punjab, Pakistan. Statistical tools (SPSS-20 &amp; AMOS-21) were utilized for reliability, validity, and hypotheses testing. In light of findings, the study recommends focusing on GTL, GI, and CSR to enhance sustainable business performance &amp; remain competitive in market. Results offer to SMEs managers &amp; policymakers to manage green aspects and CSR practices. It can help managers of SMEs strengthen internal resources to enhance sustainable business performance.</p> Fahad Zain Muhammad Zaigham Abbas Muhammad Rizwan Ali Copyright (c) 2023 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT 2023-03-31 2023-03-31 5 2 201 216 10.53664/JSRD/04-01-2023-18-201-216 IMPACT OF WORK STRESS ON JOB SATISFACTION WITH MODERATING EFFECT OF SOCIAL SUPPORT <p>The purpose of this research is to investigate relationship between stress at work and amount of job satisfaction experienced by surgeons, while taking into consideration moderating effects of social support. First of two aspects of occupational stress that are investigated is the failure to maintain a healthy balance between one's personal and professional lives. Second is stress that is experienced while working. To collect primary data, questionnaire was sent to 500 medical professionals, the majority of whom were surgeons employed by private institutions. Results of this research demonstrated that a healthy work-life balance has a significant impact on the job satisfaction. Moreover, lower levels of job satisfaction have been connected to workplace stress. The unfavorable association between work-life balance and job satisfaction is minimized when surgeons have access to social services. Also, it reduces the detrimental impact of work-related stress on performance, that is significant advantage. Top-level managers have potential to boost surgeons’ satisfaction by implementing stress management practices in the workplace and offering social support.</p> Muhammad Naeem Anjum Farhad Hussain Khawar Abbas Copyright (c) 2023 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT 2023-03-31 2023-03-31 5 2 192 200 10.53664/JSRD/04-01-2023-17-192-200 RESISTANCE AGAINST GRAND IDEOLOGY AND SUPPRESSIVE DISCOURSE OF WHITE SUPREMACY IN THE KINDEST LIE <p>It is a well-accepted fact that race and colour are only deceptive symbols and notions that influential groups in society use to justify denying anyone's basic human rights and excluding them from society. The research begins by looking at role played by African American community in defining tactics to resist political exclusion, falsified information, &amp; unjustifiable segregation by white supremacy and its discussive practises in Nancy Johnson novel The Kindest Lie. Theoretical groundwork for the textual study of the chosen novel is provided by postmodernism. Lyotard's (1979) concept of scepticism to metanarrative and deconstruction of major ideologies is worth mentioning. Study shows that Black Americans use specific tactics to challenge system that cares white supremacy; they take on strong organizations and challenge structural prejudices. On other side, white supremacy is built on intolerance and disrespect for other social groups and the belief that Black people are naturally inferior and should not be treated equally. The African American people and freedom fighters made plans to cope with subtly exiting racism &amp; discursive practices of white supremacy by focusing and promoting their own culture and history.</p> Abrar Ahmed Amir Turkey Abdul Shakoor Copyright (c) 2023 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT 2023-03-31 2023-03-31 5 2 179 191 10.53664/JSRD/04-01-2023-16-179-191 MEDIATING ROLE OF EMPLOYEES’ SOCIETAL BEHAVIORS AMID SOCIAL SUSTAINABILITY ORIENTATION AND OPERATIONAL PERFORMANCE: A SEM APPROACH <p>By addressing issues &amp; well-being of key stakeholders, social sustainability may offer operational advantages and benefit society at large. However, due to gaps in current knowledge, it is challenging to determine which practices will be beneficial and which managerial orientations will maximize effect of these practices upon operational performance. Study aimed to determine the mediating role of societal behaviors of employees amid social sustainability orientation and operational performance of freight forwarders. It recognizes strength of forces that oppose social change. Data was collected on complex questionnaire from freight forwarders, managers across developing country and analyzed through SEM using AMOS (23). Paper confirmed the mediating role of employee societal behavior amid socially sustainable freight transport orientation and operational performance. Findings suggest that SSI should be designed and implemented through positive behavioral changes, with the organization's employees themselves as primary target. It is the employees’ positive attitudes and behaviors that translate SSI into effective operational performance.</p> Muhammad Ovais Umerkhel Muhammad Nouman Anwar Khan Copyright (c) 2023 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT 2023-03-31 2023-03-31 5 2 164 178 10.53664/JSRD/04-01-2023-15-164-178 UNFOLDING PATRIARCHAL AND CAPITALIST OPPRESSION: A CRITICAL DISCOURSE ANALYSIS OF “THE MURDER OF AZIZ KHAN” <p>This paper aims to unfold patriarchal oppression and capitalist oppression, evaluating the response of various male and female characters of novel “The Murder of Aziz Khan” by Zulfikar Ghose against (capitalist) oppression and dominance differently. Nexus between capitalism &amp; patriarchy has created wide divide among human beings. So, there has always been tussle between these classes: oppressor (employer) and the oppressed (labourers). There was no rapprochement amid the ruler and the ruled. “The Murder of Aziz Khan” is essentially divided into two classes of people: the rulers who do all for their benefit and ruled that are oppressed and don’t have any choice to live their lives as per to their wishes. So very often oppressed class of people showed its resistance against oppression and dominance verbally and physically. “The Murder of Aziz Khan” was studied by using critical discourse analysis, under umbrella of qualitative research approach. Theories provided framework of this article to analyze the responses of male and female characters against oppression &amp; dominance. The study concluded that there was high resistance level of male &amp; female characters against the unnecessary domination and oppression.</p> Tanveer Hussain Muhammad Farhat Hayat Muhammad Abid Copyright (c) 2023 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT 2023-03-31 2023-03-31 5 2 154 163 10.53664/JSRD/04-01-2023-14-154-163 THE FINANCIAL DECISION MAKING OF RETAIL INVESTORS IN PAKISTAN STOCK EXCHANGE: A COMPREHENSIVE ANALYSIS OF KEY FACTORS <p>In recent years, field of behavioral finance has gained increasing attention, with numerous studies investigating impact of various factors on investors' decision-making. However, there remains a critical gap in literature when it comes to a comprehensive understanding of the factors that influence retail investors' decision-making. This gap presents a chance for further research to explore factors that affect retail investors' decision-making, particularly in developing nations like Pakistan. The study examines both behavioral and external factors that impact the financial decision-making of retail investors in Pakistan. The research includes a sample of retail investors who invest in the Pakistan stock market, and data is collected using the simple random sampling technique. 1000+ questionnaire were distributed &amp; 545 responses were received. The researcher used Smart-PLS for the purpose to analyze both measurement model and structural model. Results reveal that all exogenous variables have a significant influence financial decisions of retail investors in Pakistan stock market. Results hold significant implications &amp; limitations for behavioral finance</p> Shahzeb Khurshid Ashfaq Ahmad Copyright (c) 2023 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT 2023-03-31 2023-03-31 5 2 133 145 10.53664/JSRD/04-01-2023-12-133-145 THE ROLE OF SPIRITUAL LEADERSHIP AND INCLUSION PRACTICES UPON WORKPLACE SPIRITUALITY <p>The major objective of current research is to investigate the role of spiritual leadership and inclusion practices on workplace spirituality. The sample size of study consisted of manufacturing companies operating in selected cities of Pakistan. Sample selected for this study was 300 which was selected based on previous literature. 300 questionnaires were distributed among managers at a diverse levels of manufacturing companies. Research used probability-based, simple random selection plan to choose participants for questionnaire completion. The results suggested that spiritual leadership had a significant effect upon workplace spirituality. Results suggested that inclusion practices have significant effect on workplace spirituality. Study is vital for managers and companies’ policy makers to make policies by using study findings to boost productivity of employees. This research is restricted to examining how performance of MNC’s industry is affected by influence of just a few aspects of leadership. Comparison of influence of leadership in MNC’s and small and medium-sized enterprises would provide a new perspective to the study of literature and leadership.</p> Umar Akbar Muhammad Arshad Khawar Abbas Copyright (c) 2023 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT 2023-03-31 2023-03-31 5 2 116 123 10.53664/JSRD/04-01-2023-10-116-123 EFFECTIVENESS OF ASSESSMENTS THROUGH TABS AT PRIMARY LEVELS IN PEF SCHOOLS OF LAHORE <p>This study was designed to explore effectiveness of using tabs in assessment at primary level in PEF schools of Lahore. The paradigm of the current study was social constructivism. Basic qualitative research methods were used for data collection and the analysis procedures. Open-ended interviews were conducted from twenty-five primary school teachers in Lahore. Purposive sampling technique was used for selection of participants. Qualitative data were analyzed through the arranged of data, coding, and emerged into the themes. It was evident from this research that using tabs in assessment has boosted performance of students. The results offered significant information about research issues as examined in particular context for specific purpose to produce desired outcomes. The result of the study showed that usage of innovative technology in assessment is productive and has a positive impact on student learning in English, Mathematics, and Urdu. Findings suggested that the number of tabs given to each school should be increased according to the student’s strengths, as tabs motivate students and help in improving student learning.</p> Mamuna Maria Shafia Baber Iqra Alam Copyright (c) 2023 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT 2023-03-31 2023-03-31 5 2 124 132 10.53664/JSRD/04-01-2023-11-124-132 EXPLORING THE MODERATING ROLE OF TALENT MANAGEMENT AMID EMPLOYER BRANDING AND EMPLOYEES’ PERFORMANCE <p>This research aims to determine how company brand influences employee performance. The second objective of this study is to examine that how talent management influences connection between employer brand and employee performance. The study's main data was collected using closed-ended and structured questions. Likert scales using 5-point Likert scale, spanning from 1 to 5, have been used to measure the response level. The statistical analysis of this research is based on random sample of 300 respondents who responded to a questionnaire. To test the expected associations between the research variables, the partial least squares (PLS) approach of structural equation modelling (SEM) was used. Researcher also analyzed the direct and indirect correlations between variables in the structural model. The data indicate that employer branding has a significant effect on employee performance. It is strong predictor of increased levels of performance &amp; talent management moderates the association significantly and thus provide the clues to future researchers for further studies.</p> Ghulam Abbas Abid Hussain Syed Ibnul Hassan Copyright (c) 2023 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT 2023-03-31 2023-03-31 5 2 108 115 10.53664/JSRD/04-01-2023-09-108-115 IMPACT OF SERVICE QUALITY, CUSTOMER ENGAGEMENT & CUSTOMER SATISFACTION ON CUSTOMER LOYALTY WITH THE MODERATING ROLE OF RELIGIOSITY <p>The study intends to investigate determinants of customers' loyalty to Islamic banks, particularly service quality, customer satisfaction, as well as customer engagement. Moreover, the current study looked into the role of religiosity in moderating the relationship between the observed variables. For the purpose of this study, 335 customers of Islamic banks in Pakistan participated in this survey. This research used the purposive sampling and structural equation modelling to analyses the data. The outcome of this research indicated that there is clear relationship amid high levels of customer satisfaction, customer engagement, customer service quality, and customer loyalty. In addition, the findings indicated that religiosity has a moderating relationship with the observed variables. This research takes a cross-sectional approach while also focusing on a case study of specific nation. Results offer valuable information and as a consequence, the findings may not be indicative of the situation in other nations. The research, including the gathering of longitudinal data, is carried out in similar manner in other nations, making it useful to participate in such a study. </p> Nazakat Khan Waqas Patras Ahmed Saeed Copyright (c) 2023 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT 2023-03-31 2023-03-31 5 2 100 107 10.53664/JSRD/04-01-2023-08-100-107 INTERRELATIONSHIP OF TEACHERS’ WRITTEN FEEDBACK & STUDENTS’ ACHIEVEMENTS IN ENGLISH AT SECONDARY SCHOOL LEVEL <p>This quantitative research was conducted in the district of Punjab, Pakistan. Teachers’ feedback on 260 secondary students’ note book of English subject was evaluated through an observational sheet. The observational sheet was designed by researchers to evaluate the teachers’ feedback and categorize it. Main categories were prompt and delayed feedback, positive and negative feedback. Also, classification was done to identify evaluative, improvement, descriptive, and descriptive feedback. Study aims to measure relationship of feedback types with students score in examination in the subject of English. Strong and positive correlation was found amid the prompt positive feedback and students’ achievement score. The results provide significant information that are used for making decisions about interrelationships in research issues and reaching conclusion. The results are significant and help in extracting the recommendations to stakeholders and future researchers about research issues. It is recommended to organize training and guidance sessions for the teachers for creating awareness to use the effective feedback techniques in the classroom.</p> Saba Farid Muhammad Farooq Alam Nasrullah Copyright (c) 2023 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT 2023-03-31 2023-03-31 5 2 146 153 10.53664/JSRD/04-01-2023-13-146-153 HOW LEADERSHIP STYLES EFFECTS CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT AND INNOVATION: A MEDIATION & MODERATION MODEL <p>This study aims to analyze and compare two direction graces and their effect on employee innovation &amp; continuous improvement. This research is unique in nature and first to explore combined effect of leadership styles and their output and unique mediation and moderation effect. Study used structured questionnaire for data collection purpose that was distributed in employees to voluntarily participate in the survey and responded to the questions using a self-administration technique. After collecting required information, data has been analyzed over SPSS. This study aims to find results of research model were supported by extensive literature review, mainly on transformational leadership style and relation with innovation and continuous improvement. In this current study, empirical relationships will be explored with mediation and moderation effects. Consequently, the current research provides input to the organizations as to how they can face challenges in future. Best leaders make healthy relation with employees and motivate them to work. With the support of leaders, employees enjoy working in organizations and indulge in day-to-day activities.</p> Hafiz Muhammad Umair Nasir Sana Mukhtar Ariba Ramzan Copyright (c) 2023 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT 2023-03-31 2023-03-31 5 2 81 99 10.53664/JSRD/04-01-2023-07-81-99 MEDIATING ROLE OF WORKPLACE ISOLATION AND MODERATING ROLE OF WORKPLACE INTEGRATION BETWEEN ENTERPRISE SOCIAL MEDIA AND EMPLOYEES’ PERFORMANCE <p>The companies typically use enterprise social media to enhance employee performance of its employees. This study's objective is to look into mediating role that workplace isolation plays on connection between use of ESM and Employee Performance. The researcher explores linkage among employee social media use and workplace isolation that is moderated by workplace integration. A cross-sectional survey template was used to guide analysis. This research's information was gathered from public and private companies in the telecom sector that are involved in offering goods and services to their consumers. The study was carried out with quantitative method approach. A total 375 respondents participated in study and convenient sampling was the sampling method used. PLS3 was used to analyses demographic data and SPSS to assess the connection between the independent and dependent variables. Thus, workplace isolation acts as a mediator between ESM and Employee Performance, having a considerable impact on both variables. This study revealed that how the deployment of ESM affects worker productivity using social exchange theory.</p> Huma Ali Muhammad Shaukat Malik Sameen Mehak Copyright (c) 2023 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT 2023-03-31 2023-03-31 5 2 50 67 10.53664/JSRD/04-01-2023-05-50-67 INTENTIONS TO ADOPT ECOPRENEURSHIP WITH MODERATING EFFECT OF COLLECTIVISM: A CASE OF SME SECTOR OF PAKISTAN <p>SME sector, particularly manufacturing SME's, must recognize importance of economic sustainability and seek out routes that support for sustainability, like ecopreneurship. This study explores ecopreneurship adoption intentions while expanding the theory of planned behaviour model by incorporating moderating effect of collectivism. The population of research is comprised of Pakistani manufacturing SMEs. Study's sample includes of manufacturing SMEs operating in Lahore region. Employees of SMEs were surveyed to obtain data. The results suggested that attitude to ecopreneurship, subjective norms and self-efficacy are primary drivers of ecopreneurship. Further, outcomes revealed that collectivism has moderating effect amid observed variables. Also, relevance of three-way interactions for attitude, subjective norms, and self-efficacy with collectivism has shown moderating effect of collectivism. Environmentally responsible firms SME's generate greater possibilities since many successful businesses are ecologically aware and continually seek the economic benefits by being green. The research is thus restricted to Pakistani manufacturing SMEs.</p> Muhammad Kamran Aleena Syed Ayra Tariq Copyright (c) 2023 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT 2023-03-31 2023-03-31 5 2 15 24 10.53664/JSRD/04-01-2023-02-15-24 IMPACT OF CULTURAL, MARKETING AND PRODUCT INNOVATIONS ON FIRMS PERFORMANCE OF SMEs <p>The purpose of this research is to analyze the connections between cultural innovation, product innovation and marketing innovation, with special focus on small and medium-sized businesses (SMEs). Sample population consisted of workers from several SMEs in Multan region of Pakistani manufacturing hub of Multan. Total of 291 SME’s workers and owners were used to compile this sample. To collect the information, we used a standardized questionnaire, the statistics package SPSS is useful for doing numerous statistical analyses on collected data (demographic analysis, correlation analysis &amp; regression analysis). There is significant relationship between all the variables, and also regression analysis shows the model is fit and can predict research’s results. The study's findings can be used by managers at SMEs to develop the fresh approaches to product promotion. The results provide significant information for reaching decisions. Further, study provides the manager with a guide and set of actions for selling product credibly, that is essential for overcoming the problem of falling demand.</p> Irfan Ahmad Khan Amir Hussain Shar Mumtaz Ali Junejo Copyright (c) 2023 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT 2023-03-31 2023-03-31 5 2 36 49 10.53664/JSRD/04-01-2023-04-36-49 WOMEN ENTREPRENEUR SUCCESS THROUGH WOMEN EMPOWERMENT: AN APPROACH OF MOTIVATIONAL NEED THEORY <p>The aim of this study is to analyze the key factors contributing to women’s entrepreneurial success in Pakistan. Based on motivational need theory this study has three independent variables, family and social support, need for achievement, and creativity &amp; innovation; while women’s entrepreneurial success is the dependent variable of the study. Women empowerment has a critical role in women’s professional life. Therefore, women’s empowerment is taken as the moderator in this study. The sample of the study is based on 193 businesswomen in Pakistan. The data is gathered through a Questionnaire, which is analyzed on SPSS and PLS SEM. The results of regression analysis show that all the hypotheses are accepted. However, family &amp; social support has a high influence among all the independent variables upon the women’s entrepreneurial success. This study strengthens current literature regarding women’s entrepreneurship, as well as gives beneficial insights into society of Pakistan to enhance women’s entrepreneurial success. Further study should explore other determinants of the women’s entrepreneurial success, and also used large sample to get more generalized results to examine the issues from new dimensions.</p> Ahmad Tisman Pasha Safeena Sahar Muhammad Raza Zafar Copyright (c) 2023 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT 2023-03-31 2023-03-31 5 2 25 35 10.53664/JSRD/04-01-2023-03-25-35 IMPACT OF TEACHER-STUDENT FAVORITISM ON STUDENTS’ LEARNING OUTCOMES AT UNIVERSITY LEVEL <p>This study aimed to explore teacher favoritism's impact on students' learning outcomes at university level. Favoritism is a common trend in classrooms as teachers give special treatment to a few students despite not providing their best work, instead because of other reasons, like the personal preferences and liking/disliking. This research focuses on how students think about teacher-student favoritism and how it impacts students' learning outcomes. To answer these questions positivism paradigm was adhered to. The research followed a quantitative approach, and the survey method was considered best suited for this study. Population of this study consisted of all public sector universities of Lahore. The sample was collected from five general category public sector universities of Lahore. The descriptive and inferential statistics were used to conclude. Therefore, it was found that favoritism significantly impacts student learning outcomes at the university level. It causes insecurity, dissatisfaction, conflicts, and revengeful emotions among students, that directly affect their learning of students. Favoritism also causes less self-confidence in students. Favoritism impacts classroom environment, which is directly related to lousy learning outcomes.</p> Khizer Ahmed Zaki Shahid Rafiq Ayesha Afzal Copyright (c) 2023 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT 2023-03-31 2023-03-31 5 2 01 14 10.53664/JSRD/04-01-2023-01-01-14 SUPERVISOR BASE OSTRACISM & EMPLOYEE BEHAVIOURS: MEDIATION AND MODERATOR ANALYSIS <p>This study aims to investigate the relationships between supervisor-based ostracism and ingratiatory and extra-role behaviors in Pakistan, with job insecurity and political skills playing moderating and mediating roles, respectively. The supervisor-based ostracism, ingratiatory, as well as extra-role behaviors were hypothesized to have the direct correlations with one another. The survey was administered and data analyzed through different statistical procedures in order to examine the desired relationship among the research variables. The results provide significant information that helps in reaching the desired conclusion. The findings showed that with the exception of political skills, all of the variables have significant positive relationships; supervisor-based ostracism has a positive relationship with the ingratiatory behaviors that lead to extra role behaviors; and job insecurity and political skills moderate effects of dependent variables. Thus, based upon the results of study, certain recommendations have been extracted for policy makers as well as future researchers along with provision of managerial and theoretical implications.</p> Imran Ullah Khan Tazeem Ali Shah Copyright (c) 2023 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT 2023-03-31 2023-03-31 5 2 68 80 10.53664/JSRD/04-01-2023-06-68-80 ROLE BASED EVALUATION OF SCHOOL PRINCIPALS: PERCEPTIONS OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN PUNJAB <p>The study focuses on perception of student specifically about their principal. How the students perceive their principal’s behavior from their own capacity in school is the main objective of this study. A qualitative approach was used to document and analyze perceptions of secondary school students about their principal in context of Punjab culture. A descriptive method was used to carry out study. An interview protocol was developed to use for the interview of students. Interviewees were both male and female students of secondary schools. Fifty-five interviews with secondary school students, five private school located in Lahore were conducted to capture their perception exactly about principal and generally about schooling. These general perceptions of students about schooling were considered relevant with specific perceptions about principals. Study concludes that students’ perceptions about principal is the matter which can not only help educationist to resolve many issues regarding dropping out, dissatisfaction, changing schools and restlessness among students rather it can bring a tremendous change in principal’s role as an instructional leader.</p> <p> </p> Ayesha Afzal Iffaf Iqbal Umera Iftikhar Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Social Research Development 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 5 2 329 344 10.53664/JSRD/03-02-2022-15-329-344 ROLE OF KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT IN WORKER’S PRODUCTIVITY AND ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE: EMPIRICAL STUDY OF SOUTH PUNJAB, PAKISTAN <p>This study exploited effect of knowledge management in knowledge worker productivity and empirically measured via cross-sectional study and data was collected from banks in south-Punjab Pakistan. There is lack of literature that deliberate interplay of knowledge management-enablers, knowledge worker’s productivity, knowledge management process as well as the organizational performance. Thus, the findings as obtained through the statistical procedures provide significant information that helps in reaching the desired conclusion. The finding reveals positive significant effect of the knowledge management (KM) enablers on the knowledge management (KM) practices and process and subsequently, knowledge management practices and process has positive impact upon workers’ productivity and organizational performance. Likewise, the knowledge workers productivity also significantly enhancing the firms’ performance.</p> Jawad Khalil Amjad Abbas Pitafi Naveed Yasin Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Social Research Development 2022-12-28 2022-12-28 5 2 311 328 10.53664/JSRD/03-02-2022-14-311-328 SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND ISLAM: CONTENT ANALYSIS OF HIGHER EDUCATION CURRICULUM <p>The concept of sustainability in Islam refers to Islam as a guide and rule that can affect the faith of Muslim and its consequences for environmental, social, and economic profits. The chief aim of this research study was to investigate association between Islamic studies content and Education for sustainable development, to identify contents in Islamic studies curriculum that served ESD by conducting a content analysis of the BS in Islamic studies Scheme of Studies to determine the presence of the three pillars of ESD (Environmental, economic &amp; social), and thus providing evidence for features and functions of higher education in Islamic studies. According to the findings, ESD is not a novel idea in Islam. Thus, symbol of Islam became the capital of knowledge from the start of Islamic history. The Islam constantly encourage humans to gain knowledge. Findings can serve as the solid foundation for encouraging ESD in Pakistan for current Islamic Studies curriculum at all levels of education thereby providing evidence-based strategies for achieving SDGs. Research into the content of other textbooks at all levels of education in Pakistan is also recommended.</p> Saima Nawaz Zahida Habeeb Amber Jamsheid Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Social Research Development 2022-12-28 2022-12-28 5 2 297 310 10.53664/JSRD/03-02-2022-13-297-310 FACTORS INFLUENCING CUSTOMER SATISFACTION IN E-BANKING SERVICES IN PAKISTAN: EVIDENCE BASED ON RELIABILITY, PRIVACY & CONVENIENCE <p>The current research aims to investigate the impact of key services factors on customer satisfaction in online banking in Pakistan. In this regard, three key factors including convenience, privacy and reliability were tested. The data was collected through a questionnaire-based survey. The target population was users of the E-banking services in Pakistan and a total of 320 responses received out of which 300 surveys that were used for the final analysis after screening. The results provide significant information that are thus helpful in reaching the conclusion. Based on analysis, we found a significant positive relationship between e-banking services (reliability, privacy &amp; convenience) and customer satisfaction. The results further show that modern e-banking is positively correlated with customer satisfaction and Pakistani customers are very satisfied with the online banking services. In this connection, the results of current study suggest that banks should focus upon privacy protection of their customers and convenience of use while designing the online banking services. </p> Shahid Kalim Khan Najam ul Hassan Muhammad Naeem Anjum Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Social Research Development 2022-12-26 2022-12-26 5 2 286 296 10.53664/JSRD/03-02-2022-12-286-296 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTORS FOR PUBLIC PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP (PPP) AND SUSTAINABLE PPP PROJECT PERFORMANCE <p>Sustainable public-private partnership project performance is great challenge for project management domain. This study aims to investigate relationship between critical success factors for public-private partnership &amp; sustainable public-private partnership project performance. CSF theory has been used to evaluate relationship. Quantitative approach has been used to determine the link between the study variables. Cross-sectional data with a primary method for data collection is used. An adapted questionnaire is used to get the data. The correlation analysis between study variables provides empirical evidence about the significant relationship between CSFs and sustainable PPP project performance. The results therefore provide significant information in deciding about the desired relationship and reaching the conclusion. The study results can be used by researchers and policymakers for the sustainable PPP projects performance and based upon the relationship strength CSFs can be accorded preferences. </p> Waseem Ali Tipu Jamshid Ali Turi Muhammad Asif Khan Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Social Research Development 2022-12-25 2022-12-25 5 2 263 274 10.53664/JSRD/03-02-2022-10-263-274 TEACHERS’ BEHAVIOR INFLUENCING THE CLASSROOM PARTICIPATION OF UNIVERSITY STUDENTS <p>In a wide range of educational contexts, active participation and involvement are both essential elements for the student success. The ability of students to connect with material they are studying critically and effectively while also engaging in dialogue with their teachers and classmates is the vital skill that must be developed and refined in classroom. It has consistently been stated that most students are inactive in class, despite importance often attached to participation. The research shows how teachers' behavior influences students' participation in the class. The population of present study was the University of the Punjab as it is the most exceedingly massive University of the Punjab and have the students of all locations of Pakistan. By adopting the random sampling approach, at cessation sample of 570 respondents was drawn. The pre-testing of instrument showed that it is reliable. The collective data were analyzed over utilizing SPSS. Results of present study suggested, to enhance class participation teachers should deport positively and eliminate all those elements from their edification methodology that have negative effect on class participation.</p> Farrukh Kamran Ayesha Afzal Shahid Rafiq Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Social Research Development 2022-12-25 2022-12-25 5 2 173 192 10.53664/JSRD/03-02-2022-05-173-192 QUALITY OF EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION IN CONTEXT OF TEACHERS’ KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS IN PAKISTAN <p>The improvement in quality of education including ECE/Play group/ Nursery/ Kachi/Prep/Pakki/ kindergarten at primary school level in context of teachers’ knowledge and skills is very important. The study was descriptive (survey) in nature. Total numbers of (N =3529) in Bannu Division were the population of the study, and ECE teachers were the target population of the study in which the total numbers of (n = 360) teachers were taken as sample of the study through simple random and stratified sampling techniques. Main objective of the study was to examine knowledge and professional skills of ECE public and private school teachers in Pakistan. Data were collected over teachers’ competencies inventory. Validity and reliability of research instrument were ensured. Results and conclusions were drawn by revealing that GPS teachers were better than private school teachers. Thus, some recommendations were offered to government, education department, policy and decision makers, planners, educationists, philosophers, and teachers’ trainers to promote the quality of ECE Education in Pakistan by promoting the teachers’ knowledge, competency and professional skills. </p> Asif Ali Khan Safdar Rehman Ghazi Irfan Ullah Khan Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Social Research Development 2022-12-25 2022-12-25 5 2 275 285 10.53664/JSRD/03-02-2022-11-275-285 EXPLORING THE ANTECEDENTS OF EMPLOYEE TURNOVER INTENTIONS: THE SCALE VALIDATION THROUGH PILOT TEST <p>The Brief summary: The study aimed to explore the antecedents of employee turnover intentions through the scale validation based on pilot test. Data and collection procedure: Primary data collected by close-ended questionnaire. Sampling: Convenience and snow-ball sampling techniques used to acquire data. Nature: The study was quantitative and descriptive in nature. Population and sample size: Approximately, 125 questionnaires delivered to the target population which including managers and non-managers, working in private banks of Sindh, Pakistan and out of that 100 received back as completed and fit for data analysis and interpretation. Data analysis &amp; interpretation: Data analyzed and interpreted by SPSS and PLS-SEM. Findings: Cronbach’s alpha, item analysis and factor analysis measured individually for overall variables of study. All variables and items measured internally consistent and reliable except few items. Such items were measured insignificant through the factor loading considered to be revised or revisited. Conclusion: This study assisted researcher to find out errors of instrument and suggested solutions to revise such items which may cause problems in making analysis and interpretation for the main study. </p> Tauqeer Hussain Hakro Jawed Ahmed Chandio Hakim Ali Mahesar Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Social Research Development 2022-12-25 2022-12-25 5 2 248 262 10.53664/JSRD/03-02-2022-09-248-262 PRO-ENVIRONMENTAL BEHAVIOR OF FRONTLINE EMPLOYEES IN TOURISM INDUSTRY OF PAKISTAN <p>The organizational and institutional influence on environmental well-being depends largely on its employee’s potential to act in the pro-environmental manner. The addition of sustainable environmentally concerned polices in the organization’s policies is essential. Green or environmentally concerned policies are rapidly emerging and compelling organizations to participate in green activities. Pro-environmental behavior can help the organizations to adapt to and makes it able mitigate prevailing climate problems. This study seeks to thoroughly investigate role of following variables, which includes environmental attitudes, environmental knowledge, and pro-environmental psychological climate (PEPC) in fostering Pro-environmental behavior. The sample of study comprised tour operators and tourist guides. The survey’s responses (n=232) were collected from a population (N) of 409. Data were collated via an online questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS and PROCESS macro. The results showed that EA, EK, and PEPC positively influenced PEB of tour operators and tourist guides. Further, PEPC positively moderated the EA-PEB and EK-PEEB relationships. The study offers several theoretical and practical insights. </p> Mayen Khan Zainab Bibi Ammarah Ahmed Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Social Research Development 2022-12-25 2022-12-25 5 2 143 159 10.53664/JSRD/03-02-2022-03-143-159 THE MINORITIES RIGHTS PROTECTION: A CASE STUDY OF SIKH MINORITY OF PUNJAB, PAKISTAN <p>Pakistan is signatory of the various human rights treaties proposed by United Nations and other international and regional organizations. These human rights treaties focus on human rights protection in democratic society where every individual have their rights. These treaties also give the framework for rights of all types of the minorities living in state. Minorities’ rights protection means that people from different ethnicities, nationalities and religion enjoy fundamental rights like freedom, nondiscrimination, political and civil rights. But sometimes in states like Pakistan, social norms, slow process of decision making and policy execution interrupt minorities to enjoy their basic rights. The study aimed to elucidate minorities’ rights protection in Punjab, specially focused on Sikh minority in Punjab. Sikhs are facing lot of issues like other minorities are facing. Primary data has been collected from Sikh community residing in Punjab. 120 Sikhs have been selected for survey and among 120, (112 males &amp; 08 female) through questionnaire. There is a dire need to focus upon the minorities so that they can live freely in Pakistan according to their own faith.</p> Muhammad Arslan Sarfraz Nawaz Ghulam Mustafa Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Social Research Development 2022-12-25 2022-12-25 5 2 212 228 10.53664/JSRD/03-02-2022-07-212-228 MULTITASKING BEHAVIOR IN THE WORKPLACE: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW <p>The multitasking behavior is burgeoning in today’s work environment which reflects capabilities of individual to manage multiple things simultaneously to attain the efficient work performance. Study examines effect of multitasking on human behavior in workplace and its impact upon work performance. A search strategy was formulated to conduct this literature review-based study, and different databases containing scholarly research material were explored to find related literature. Inclusion-exclusion criteria were defined &amp; included studies fulfilled selection criteria. PRISMA-P (2015) guidelines were followed to complete study. After reviewing literature pertaining to subject, finding established the fact, internal and external interruption triggers the individuals’ working behavior towards multitasking at the workplace. Multitask working behavior exerts an impact on overall work performance particularly, on work quality, productivity, and working memory. In this linking, no prior literature-based evidence is available in this domain in particular context. The scope of study is confined to published literature on human multitasking and human performance, literature on system multitasking and media multitasking is not included. </p> Nadia Butt Nosheen Fatima Warraich Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Social Research Development 2022-12-25 2022-12-25 5 2 229 247 10.53664/JSRD/03-02-2022-08-229-247 ANALYSIS OF EDUCATIONAL FACILITIES IN EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION: A CROSS SECTIONAL SURVEY OF AZAD JAMMU AND KASHMIR <p>The study was conducted to find out educational facilities provided to early childhood education in Azad Jammu &amp; Kashmir. Descriptive research method was used for conducting the research. In descriptive research survey method was used for the collection of data from respondents. All two hundred sixty (260) teachers working in fifty-two (52) government primary schools of AJ&amp;K were population of study. Universal sampling technique was used to select the sample from population. A questionnaire based on five-point Likert scale was used as research instrument to collect data from teachers. Questionnaire was consisted of educational facilities i.e., the indoor and outdoor educational facilities. Mean, frequency, and percentage were used for analysis of data. It was found that ECE teachers support the specific learning tasks to be carried out there. ECE teachers helps to lay the foundation for education for rest of a child's life. It is suggested that trained teachers may be hired for ECE children to enhance quality of ECE program in AJ&amp;K. There may be equal educational infrastructure and chances available to provide equity of learning to students across the District Kotli.</p> Nazir Haider Shah Makhdoom Ali Syed Nauman Saddique Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Social Research Development 2022-12-25 2022-12-25 5 2 160 172 10.53664/JSRD/03-02-2022-04-160-172 AN INVESTIGATION ON THE CLIMATE CHANGE AWARENESS AND CONCERNS <p>The concerns and awareness regarding climate change are becoming more common in various disciplines across the globe. Throughout the world, this has become a quite common topic but the country like Pakistan is still at the back to develop a body of literature particularly in the context of its people about concerns and awareness of climate change. The aim of this research was to investigate the awareness and concerns of the climate change among intermediate students at District Kech. Social survey method was applied and universe was degree colleges male and females of district Kech. A sample of 351 students had been selected from Raosoft calculator of the sample size. Proportional stratified sampling was utilized for the collection of information. The data represented the relation between climate change awareness and its concerns. In present research, the variables like attitude, activities, perception, mitigation and adaptation were significantly correlated with the awareness of climate change except gender respectively, and there exist a relation among them.</p> Muhammad Yaseen Jamil Ahmed Adnan Riaz Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Social Research Development 2022-12-25 2022-12-25 5 2 193 211 10.53664/JSRD/03-02-2022-06-193-211 THE CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND THE CORPORATE FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE BY MODERATING ROLE OF BOARD GENDER DIVERSITY <p>Current study examined influence of corporate social responsibility disclosure (CSRD) and financial performance of the firm. It highlights the effect of gender diversity as a moderator on the relationship of corporate social responsibility disclosure and financial performance. This study has used 100 non-financials companies’ data for ten years from 2011-2019. Panel data is collected from annual reports and websites of companies. Using regression analysis, scholar pragmatically analyzed the interrelationship of corporate social responsibility disclosure and financial performance along with moderating role of board gender diversity. The regression results stated that CSRD has positive impact. Gender diversity has negative moderating impact. Also, firm size, board size, and industry effect have a significant positive and independence has positive but insignificant impact on firm performance. While leverage has negatively impact on corporate financial performance. The paper focuses on relationship of financial performance and corporate social responsibility disclosure of firms with the inclusion of board gender diversity. </p> Asmara Habib Sadia Murtaza Muhammad Hadi Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Social Research Development 2022-12-25 2022-12-25 5 2 128 142 10.53664/JSRD/03-02-2022-02-128-142 LINKAGES BETWEEN ETHICAL LEADERSHIP, PERCEIVED ORGANIZATIONAL SUPPORT, AND INNOVATIVE WORK BEHAVIORS IN HEIs <p>The twenty first century has brought paradigm shift in the universities. These days universities are supposed to be innovative, self-sustainable and self-reliant. Researchers are investigating factors that can instill innovation and creativity in universities. Since Ethical Leadership boosts Innovative Working Behavior within the organizations, therefore its role in universities should be examined. This empirical study has examined associations between concepts of ethical leadership and perceived-organizational support and innovative work behaviors in selected public sector universities of Pakistan. Adopting a cross-sectional research design, online data were gathered from a sample of faculty members, universities of KP, Pakistan. Collected data were examined and analyzed by descriptive univariate and multivariate inferential statistics. Findings revealed that both direct (β: 0.883) and mediational-indirect links via variable of Perceived Organizational Support, between Ethical Leadership (β: 0.789) and Innovative Working Behavior (β: 0.686). This study has yielded vital empirical and theoretical contribution along with the proposed practical implications. </p> Anwar Khan Sajjad Ahmad Jan Muhammad Anwar Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Social Research Development 2022-12-25 2022-12-25 5 2 116 127 10.53664/JSRD/03-02-2022-01-116-127 MEDIATING ROLE OF PROACTIVE PERSONALITY IN LINKING ENTREPRENEURIAL EDUCATION AND INTENTIONS <p>The present research aimed to examine the entrepreneurship from different dimensions that have been considered as significant determining factors in managing the desired situations towards entrepreneurship development in different contexts. The entrepreneurship is measured as significant predictor toward desired social and economic developments that aimed toward the improvements in human lives. The present research examined the desired and leading outcomes through various determining factors in exploring the entrepreneurship over comprehensive manners. So, entrepreneurial education is used as predicting variable in determining entrepreneurial intentions as these intentions are vital in determining behaviors of entrepreneurs towards desired outcomes. Present study used proactive personality as the mediating variable in connecting entrepreneurial education and intentions to produce new information and to contribute existing knowledge about significance of the entrepreneurship toward desired positive social and economic changes in human lives from different dimensions. Results are significant and provide suitable guidelines to policy makers.</p> Nafid Khan Irfan Ullah Khan Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Social Research Development 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 5 2 102 115 10.53664/JSRD/03-01-2022-10-102-115 THE DYNAMIC RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY, ETHICAL CITIZENSHIP AND ORGANIZATION CULTURE TO DETERMINE THE FIRM REPUTATION <p>Current study investigates concept of Corporate Social responsibility (CSR), Ethical Citizenship Behavior and firm reputation from three different tires of organizations. Cluster sampling was applied and finally 150 participants from three different clusters were selected. Response rate varies from the different cluster. Finally, 240 participant’s data were analyzed for further analysis. Data was collected through adopted version of questionnaires. Barron and Kenny method was employed to check the mediational as well as moderating role of organization culture. The results indicate that firm reputation is strongly associated with corporate social responsibility procedures of selected firm. It is evident that CSR leads to formulate the favorable citizenship culture which in turn create positive image of firm. Based on the results it is recommended that as the concept of CSR responsively is yet in the introductory stage in Pakistan as well as other developing countries, that’s why it will take time to apply the concept of CSR in its true manner.</p> Hassan Bilal Naveed Saif Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Social Research Development 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 5 2 70 85 10.53664/JSRD/03-01-2022-08-70-85 EXAMINATION OF CRITICAL FACTORS EFFECTING ADOPTION OF INTERNET BANKING: A CASE OF PAKISTAN <p>This research aims to quantify the perceived performance, time, and financial risks of Internet Banking adoption in Pakistan's growing economy. Through a standardized questionnaire, the data were obtained from 500 internet banking customers about the barrier to Internet Banking (IB) adoption. Examining the link amid exogenous and endogenous factors, this research applied structural equation modelling. A strategy for analyzing the influence of performance, time, and financial risks on the adoption of online banking. The results of the research indicate that all factors continue to have negative relationship with IB adoption. In addition, the findings indicated that end-users refrain from adopting IB because they believe even slight errors when running the new IB system might result in catastrophic losses. The results are thus significant for users adopting the internet banking in particular contexts toward adaptation and utilization of different online facilities aimed at providing the awareness to customers about online banking.</p> Izza Fatima Muhammad Sohaib Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Social Research Development 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 5 2 52 60 10.53664/JSRD/03-01-2022-06-52-60 EFFECTS OF TAI CHI CHUAN EXERCISE ON PHYSICAL AND MENTAL HEALTH OF GENERAL PUBLIC <p>The purpose of this study was to examine effects of Tai Chi Chuan, exercise in mind-body harmony, on general public perceptions of their physical and mental health. Two-month intervention of tai chi exercises was administered to general public and multidimensional physical (PHD) and mental (MHD) scores were assessed by using SF36v2 health survey questionnaire before and after intervention. In this study 286 people participated and took part in one-hour tai chi exercise twice week for 2 months. Normalized values of each variable and combined values of PHD and MHD before and after tai chi intervention were examined by using the paired t-test (p &lt;0.05). The physical measurements of BP and GH and mental, RE, VT, MH improved significantly after tai chi exercise intervention. When evaluating the total values of PHD or MHD, MHD better significantly. Results have narrated that tai chi exercises had positive effects on self-rated physical &amp; mental health. Scores for mental health appeared to be sensitive to change. The schools, colleges/universities,<br />and health centers might offer the tai chi as Part of ongoing physical activity programs available for students.</p> Muhammad Ishaq Ejaz Asghar Mughal Zulqarnain Haider Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Social Research Development 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 5 2 86 101 10.53664/JSRD/03-01-2022-09-86-101 ANALYSIS OF UPPER BODY THREE-D MOTION OF BATTERS FOR EXECUTION OF PULL SHOT IN CRICKET <p>In modern international cricket pull-shot is used as deadly weapon against fast bowlers by the batters that is why the technique of pulling the short pitch deliveries has clinched importance and improved. The researcher has tried to investigate kinematics of the batters’ upper extremities in the cricket during executing pulling the short pitch ball. It was investigated that how the batters manage ball's speed, bounce, and uniformity during playing pull shot during competitions. Cricket players participating in HEC Pakistan, universities cricket championship from the Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan, and KP, Pakistan were targeted sample of the study. The kinematic analysis was performed by using analysis software. The kinematics of upper extremities of the 12 batters for successful and unsuccessful pull shots were compared by using repeated measure (ANOVA). In better pull shot it was observed that the movement of the shoulders and arms were rapid, while, batters position was closer to line of short pitch ball. The results have shown that best and successful pull shot batters upper extremities joints extension and thus adjustment abilities were comparatively better than the others.</p> Noor Muhammad Marwat Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Social Research Development 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 5 2 61 69 10.53664/JSRD/03-01-2022-07-61-69 EXAMINING THE IMPACT OF GUERRILLA MARKETING ON CUSTOMERS LOYALTY THROUGH BRAND TRUST <p>This study investigates effect of guerilla marketing on brand loyalty through brand trust as the mediator. A survey was conducted to confirm the study's hypotheses. The sample size of 250 and despite the average response rate in Pakistan, 400 questionnaires were sent out to e-banking customers, of which 230 were returned. Twelve incomplete responses were removed from further analysis, while 218 complete responses were subjected to statistical analysis. According to results of structural equation model, the influence of guerilla marketing on social media has an effect on customer’s loyalty. The model of this study evaluates brand attitude, security, website design as independent and brand trust consider as a mediating variable and outcome variables is customer loyalty. The results of this study indicated that there is a significant and positive relationship with customer loyalty and trust as a mediator has significant and positive relationship between observed variables. Outcomes provide theoretical information about guerrilla marketing. The research assists advertisers in understanding the factors that influence brand image effects of Guerilla marketing.</p> Aamir Sohail Sujawal Hussain Abid Hussain Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Social Research Development 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 5 2 32 39 10.53664/JSRD/03-01-2022-04-32-39 FACTORS AFFECTING CUSTOMER ADOPTION OF ISLAMIC BANKING SERVICES: A CASE FROM PAKISTAN <p>Our goal is to study the elements that impact a person's decision to adopt Islamic banking in Pakistan. The study focuses on differences between Islamic and conventional banking, importance of religion in selecting Islamic banking, and customer perceptions towards the Islamic banking. Moreover, this study employs the quantitative approach by surveying 880 participants. In analysis, predicting variables are bank awareness, perceived compatibility, perceived risk, and most important religiosity, and social impact. In the case of Islamic banking, the dependent variable is Intention to adopt Islamic banking. This study found that consumer understanding and perceived compatibility had a positive impact on their desire to use Islamic banking services. A consumer's intention to adopt Islamic banking is strongly influenced by their religiosity and social presence. However, reputation of bank does not affect customer intent. In conclusion, customer willingness to adopt Islamic banking services in Pakistan is negatively impacted by perceived risk and thus study offered certain valuable recommendations.</p> Muhammad Arsalan Ali Abdul Qayyum Jam Qamar Hussain Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Social Research Development 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 5 2 40 51 10.53664/JSRD/03-01-2022-05-40-51 EXPLORING THE IMPACT OF APPRAISAL PERFORMANCE AND HR PRACTICES ON ORGANIZATIONAL LOYALTY <p>HR practices are the foremost imperative tools of any organization to fulfill larger part of organizational objectives through way better work execution of representatives working within organization. The show consider was outlined to think about the nature and design of the relationship between HR practices (Recompense, Execution Assessment prepare and advancement) and work execution of workers in industrial set up. The primary objective of study is to establish a relationship between human resource practices on organizational loyalty. The data of 330 employees from the selected diverse industries were collected. The findings indicate a correlation between Performance Appraisal (HR practices) and organizational loyalty. The increased employee loyalty will<br />boost organizational effectiveness through the retention of competent and experienced personnel, hence minimizing turnover intentions. As such, this study backs to body of information regarding impact of the human resource management on organizational loyalty. The data results might be used as a reference or guideline for future researchers.</p> Faizan Shahid Muhammad Ibrahim Abdul Qayyum Jam Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Social Research Development 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 5 2 22 31 10.53664/JSRD/03-01-2022-03-22-31 MEDIATING ROLE OF TRANSFORMATIONAL & TRANSACTIONAL LEADERSHIP IN UNDERSTANDING MCLEAN & DELONE INFORMATION SYSTEM <p>This study aimed to develop existing knowledge in field of information system by integrating MCLean and DeLeon Modeling with Bass and Avolio style of leadership. For this purpose, data was collected from the university students of various departments through adopted questionnaires. Obtained information were analyzed through SPSS software and Barron and Kenny procedure was adopting to validate the mediation process. Results depict that in model one presented that transformational leadership indirect effect was still significant, which conform the partial mediation. While model two consist of transactional leadership and path c’ was insignificant, that conforms full meditation. Hence it is proved that transactional leadership is major contributor to strengthen DMISM in Pakistan. This study is likely to be supportive in implementing and understanding student attitude toward online systems and the indispensable<br />role of leader attitude toward inspiring students for knowledge sharing over technology. This study examines dynamic relationship between information system modeling and human behavioral interaction during learning process in HEI of Pakistan. </p> Umar Farooq Naveed Saif Imrab Shaheen Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Social Research Development 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 5 2 9 21 10.53664/JSRD/03-01-2022-02-9-21 DO ORGANIZATIONAL SOCIALIZATION EFFECT ON THE TURNOVER INTENTION? <p>The research aims to discuss the impact of organizational socialization on the turnover intention. In leading the analysis, the concise cross-sectional survey template was accepting. The data for this study was gathered from public and private businesses that deal with giving clients goods and services. Thus, 400 respondents were selected and give them questionnaires which include the close-ended questions, 378 questionnaires were selected for further analysis. The sampling technique used was purposive sampling. Study of regression was used in evaluating the relationship between independent and dependent variables. Findings suggest that organizational socialization has a favorable and negative effect on turnover intentions. The creativity of this exploration is that it tries to explain turnover of the representative based on the conceptual structure that incorporates job prospects and socialization, and then seeks to bridge a void in established works. The study offered the suggestions to the policy makers and future researchers to revisit their policies regarding issues under considerations.</p> Abid Hussain Ahmar Jamshed Muhammad Hasnain Ali Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Social Research Development 2022-07-22 2022-07-22 5 2 1 8 10.53664/JSRD/03-01-2022-01-1-8 FACTOR AFFECTING THE TEAMWORK EFFECTIVENESS IN THE SERVICE BASED ORGANIZATIONS <p>The teams of people working together for a common purpose have been a centerpiece of human social organization ever since our ancient ancestors first banded together to hunt game, raise families, and defend communities. Human history is generally story of individuals working together in bunches to investigate, accomplish, and overcome. The purpose of this research work is to understand the aspects effecting team effectiveness through this we come to know that how Individuals’ talents and skills are pooled. Through this Members can see the bigger picture. Members can develop their skills. Tasks can be completed more quickly. This research was based on primary data, which was collected by means of questionnaire, the questionnaire was developed by the author. After checking the reliability of questionnaire was floated to selected 130 respondents from banking and telecom sector. The received 114 accurate responses were used for regression and correlation analysis by using SPSS software. Topic-specific conclusions and suggestions are given all through the survey. There's a strong establishment foundation give a few implies to make strides group adequacy.</p> Farhan Nabi Abdul Qayyum Jam Asmara Habib Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Social Research Development 2022-03-22 2022-03-22 5 2 103 119 10.53664/JSRD/02-02-2021-01-103-119 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT APPROACH IN SOLID WASTE OF HEALTHCARE SYSTEM IN PAKISTAN <p>TQM plays an important role in hospitals. TQM is a well-known concept; it is a management philosophy of continuously improving the quality of products and processes. Total quality management is based on 3-principles continuous quality improvement, customer services, team work. Hospitals are by nature complex organizations and complexities are multifaceted in-service hospitals with a sense of lack of services. Quality has emerged as a major issue in the healthcare sector and total quality management has been recognized as the major long-term strategic plan to further improve the quality of health care. The primary data was analyzed for ANOVA, the research results showed the significant relationship. The implementation of TQM in service providers will require the quality management awareness, training and framework progress and customer awareness. The results provide significant information results in reaching conclusion and offering recommendations to management and concerned stakeholders.</p> Muhammad Annam Aziz Dil Nawaz Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Social Research Development 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 5 2 201 213 10.53664/JSRD/02-02-2021-10-201-213 IMPACT OF ETHICAL LEADERSHIP ON WORK ENGAGEMENT AND EMOTIONAL EXHAUSTION: MEDIATING ROLE OF SELF EFFICACY AND PSYCHOLOGICAL EMPOWERMENT <p>As based on social exchange theory, current study aimed to examine Effect of the moral authority over work engagement and emotional exhaustion. The mediating role of self-efficacy and psychological empowerment is examined between ethical leadership and work engagement as well. The sample size was 221, for testing the model and data analysis, SPSS 21 version, has been used for correlation analysis. The results come about of this study uncovered noteworthy positive affiliation between the moral leadership and employee’s well-being (work engagement &amp; enthusiastic exhaustion). Mediation part of Self efficacy and psychological empowerment within relationship amid moral authority and employee’s well-being was too found significant. Accordingly, the recommendations and implications are provided to banking sector. The findings of this inquire about recommend that managing bank officers ought to be more sensitized whereas managing with work force, since it'll make an agreeable work environment that grounded interpersonal connections, which in turn, will decrease work put, push.</p> Rana Muhammad Zawar Abdul Qayyum Jam Muhibullah Nahrio Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Social Research Development 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 5 2 191 200 10.53664/JSRD/02-02-2021-09-191-200 IMPACT OF PRINCIPALS’ ADMINISTRATIVE STYLES ON JOB PERFORMANCE OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION COLLEGE LECTURERS <p>The teachers’ job performance is means through which teachers behave in teaching process results in effectiveness of the concerned teachers. The study aimed to examine impact of principal leadership styles on job performance of physical education teachers in the government degree colleges in district Layyah. The study objective was to analyze impact of administrative style of the college principals as perceived by physical education teachers. All the lecturers in physical education and students at government degree colleges were the population of the study. A promptly developed two separate Likert type questionnaires were used for data collection (first for teacher &amp; second for students). Using descriptive and inferential statistics, data analysis was performed. The alpha level to test hypotheses was .05 for t-test/Chi-Square test and .01 for regression test. Both the questionnaires were presented with frequencies and percentages with indications of majority groups. On data analysis basis, following findings are drawn. The scholar found the significant outcome at teachers at college level with respect to administrative styles on job performance. Results revealed that significant outcomes towards physical education teachers job performance at colleges.</p> Wali Ezzad Mohibullah Khan Afshan Jabeen Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Social Research Development 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 5 2 183 190 10.53664/JSRD/02-02-2021-08-183-190 LITIGATION ON LAND DISPUTES AND ITS IMPACTS ON FAMILY HEALTH AND CHILDREN EDUCATION <p>The Land is a finite natural resource and important factor of production since the existence of human being on land. It is a fundamental for survival of life and human livelihood, with immense social, cultural, commercial, aesthetic and spiritual value. The land related disputed and clashes rate is very high in the country due to huge population attached with agriculture and other land cultivations sectors. This time taking situation brings number of the social, psychological and obstacle and barriers in life of concerned litigated families and their children. Considering the intensity and importance of issues and its social impacts on the individual and family life researcher tried to find out the actual primary data from division Gujranwala. The respondents of study were the families involved in the and litigation process for one year at least. Quantitative research method and technique were applied and the data was collected over structured questionnaire. Whole phenomena of land dispute and results in litigation are affecting family and communal life. Family is suffering from social, economic, educational and health problems.</p> Saif Abbasi Rizwana Saima Safdar Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Social Research Development 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 5 2 171 182 10.53664/JSRD/02-02-2021-07-171-182 MAINSTREAMING OF THE RELIGIOUS OUTFITS IN PAKISTAN: A STEP IN RIGHT DIRECTION <p>The religious outfits have emerged like a juggernaut force in Election, 2018, though all the religious parties opposed existence of Pakistan. The political history of Pakistan is a saga of confrontation among political and extremist elements. The political Islamists wield considerable strength on the country disproportionate to political and electoral power. Islamist political groups served as coalition partners and strengthen the political capital of streamline parties. The phenomenon of mainstreaming and reintegration of religious organizations into mainstream political parties become piece de resistance when they started showing muscles over sit-ins and coercing Government into acceding their demands by hook and by crook. Political mainstreaming of religious outfits is demanded vigorously on the affirmation of renouncing violence by banned organizations turned religious political parties. Thus, the radicalization does not imply violence. The radicalization has plagued whole world. The prudent in-depth “analysis of embedded counter terrorism drives and stratagems will enhance vision and help in abridging lacunas and gaps for effective de-radicalizations” offensive.</p> Muhammad Rizwan Bhatti Ali Shan Shah Ghulam Qasim Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Social Research Development 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 5 2 160 170 10.53664/JSRD/02-02-2021-06-160-170 THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN RESOURCES AND SCHOOL SPORTS PROGRAM: A CASE STUDY <p>The study primary aim was to assess relationship between resources (human, financial &amp; material resources) and school sports programs. The population of this research study included all female principals and all female PETs. The scholars used self-made questionnaire; so, it was a Likert-type questionnaire. Items' internal consistency was assessed by the researcher. Cronbach's Alpha was used to determine significant effect against the set hypothesis (P-value and = 0.05). The study came to conclusion that resources had a substantial impact on sports program in the government high schools for females. The school administration may be interested in sports arrangements and provide professional and experienced sports staff. The administration may purchase sports goods under supervision of skillful and experienced experts. Through connection with parents, administration can assure the school excursions and sports activities for students, and instructors may explain the benefits of trips to parents in order to get their support and may provide a sufficient budget for sports activities and ensure that sports budget utilizes on sports program and skilled staff, according to sports budget may be appointed to polish the skills of sports girls.</p> Mehreen Saba Zia Ul Islam Sohail Roman Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Social Research Development 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 5 2 148 159 10.53664/JSRD/02-02-2021-05-148-159 LINKING ABUSIVE SUPERVISION WITH THE EMPLOYEE JOB ENGAGEMENT <p>This research is carried out to evaluate the impact of abusive supervision on employee job engagement. The primary data is gathered data from the 440 employees working in Lahore. Test like Reliability, Correlation and multiple linear regressions were used in analysis. This research observed that abusive supervision negatively influences the variable job engagement. The current study conducted only employees of Sapphire Textile. The current research is case study on Sapphire Textile so cannot simplify results on organizations of other type of industry. Current study works as policy guideline for employers or top management of textile sector by controlling the thoughts about envy which will ultimately foster the level of employee job engagement directly. Present research broadens body of literature by providing empirical support from the social comparison theory to explain the phenomenon of proposed relationships in the single model. The results provide significant information about relationships among research variables in reaching the conclusion and suggesting the recommendations.</p> Fakhira Tahrim Farwa Urooj Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Social Research Development 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 5 2 141 147 10.53664/JSRD/02-02-2021-04-141-147 CHANGING DYNAMICS IN OLD RIVALRY: RUSSIA IRAN REVITALIZATION AND US INTERESTS IN MIDDLE EAST <p>State is chief actor of international political arena, and rivalries among states are quiet commonplace. The world is divided into different regions, and in regional context at times the security of one state is coupled with security of other state. In regional security complex the obstructions of states’ security cannot be settled by distinguishing themselves. Such as in regional security complex, Russia and Iran due to regional proximity are bounded in common security provocations that primary security matters are highly inter-coupled and so tightly in a sense that their national securities cannot pragmatically be viewed separated from each other’s. Russia and Iran are used to face analogous security due to US influence in Middle East. Both facing sanctions imposed by US but to counter these Russia and Iran are cooperating in the areas of mutual understanding. Russia and Iran have strategic partnership and are enjoying political, economic and military relations. Issues of mutual interests like joint posture on the Syrian problem, Iran’s nuclear problem and limiting the role of US in region are promoting their mutual interests despite of their differences in various areas.</p> Syed Waqas Haider Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Social Research Development 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 5 2 129 140 10.53664/JSRD/02-02-2021-03-129-140 A STUDY ON PERCEPTIONS OF MARKETING PROFESSIONALS TOWARDS DIGITAL MARKETING IN SAUDI ARABIA <p>The current study was intended to analyze the perceptions of the marketing professional toward digital marketing and digital marketing tools specifically in Saudi Arabia. Approach of this study was quantitative in nature, in which the primary sources were the marketing professionals and secondary sources were relevant journals and articles. Wilska’s (2003) instrument was used to measure perceptions of professional whereas, data was collected with the help of convenience sampling technique. Descriptive statistical analysis was used for this study. Results revealed a significant positive response in terms of agreement about perceptions of marketing professionals to effectiveness of digital marketing in Saudi Arabia. It is revealed that professionals in Saudi Arabia are satisfied with use and effectiveness of different digital marketing tools i.e., SEO Tools, Website Content, SMS Marketing, YouTube Marketing, Social Media Apps like Facebook, Twitter, and blogs. Results explored that on relying digital marketing tools, marketing professionals perceived their business at low cost and it can benefit in different ways. The limitations and suggestions of studies have been addressed.</p> Neelam Sarfraz Tayyaba Syed Usman Khan Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Social Research Development 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 5 2 120 128 10.53664/JSRD/02-02-2021-02-120-128 ROLE OF EDUCATION DEPARTMENT BASED FACTORS ENHANCE SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENT’S PERFORMANCE IN EDUCATION <p>The current study was carried out to identify role of education department-based factors enhance secondary school student’s achievement in education. Cross-sectional survey research under the umbrella of descriptive research of quantitative approach was carried out. With the help of a two-stage random sampling technique, sampling was selected. A questionnaire-based on two sections demographic and 3 factors (teaching methodologies, the working routine of teachers, and resources) were comprised of 5-point likert scale developed by researcher. The findings of this study helped the researcher to conclude that students are agreed that they have sufficient resources in their school as its mean value is highest among factors and students achieve satisfactory marks in education and there is positive as well as significant but week correlation between these two variables which highlighted there is the Education who are learning in 10th grade at secondary schools of district Sialkot. There results provide a guideline to policy makers to update policies regraded curriculum implementation, at school level regularly by keeping in mind the student’s needs, potential, and requirements of the present tenure in particular context</p> Mehwish Manzoor Fazal Ahmad Muhammad Asghar khan Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Social Research Development 2021-06-14 2021-06-14 5 2 96 102 10.53664/JSRD/02-01-2021-10-96-102 DETERMINANTS OF SOCIAL ADJUSTMENT OF TRANSGENDER COMMUNITY IN DISTRICT FAISALABAD, PUNJAB, PAKISTAN <p>The diversity in religions, races, communities, and languages are more easily acceptable than diversity in sexual orientation. There is need of development in the area of the sexual identities globally and in Pakistan specifically. This marginalized group of individuals is facing social exclusion in the society, in terms of attaining equal social opportunities of the productive life. This study investigates societal challenges specifically in economical and geographical fields of life that are affecting transgender and their emerging issues. The study was quantitative in nature and use semi structured interview schedule as tool for data collection. The target population was transgender of urban area and researcher used a case study method to collect the data in person communication with them as per need of research. The transgender has risk of housing crisis and homelessness arising from rejection by family, neighbor force to left home, and members of local community. Government should offer them valuable jobs and secure residences.</p> Sehrish Hina Asghar Ullah Khan Dr. Muhammad Shabbir Shabbir Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Social Research Development 2021-06-14 2021-06-14 5 2 41 48 10.53664/JSRD/02-01-2021-04-41-48 AN EXAMINATION ON THE BELT AND ROAD INITIATIVE OF CHINA IN 21ST CENTURY <p>The current research analyzes Indian concerns about China's growing impact in the Indian Ocean region, particularly the transformation activities on the China's Maritime Silk Road and China's Silk Road Economic Belt in the 21st century. The research looks deeply at the reasons for the Indian anxiety and misunderstanding of the China Belt and Road Initiative, especially the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road. The research also claims that global support has exposed the role of China's BRI in regional socio-economic connectivity. India, however, is the largest nation in South Asia and has a positive impact on the Indian Ocean. In other South Asian countries, apart from Pakistan, it plays an important role in the economic, military and communications. The attitude of India is very crucial to the China's BRI. As China's most significant neighbor, the Century Maritime Silk Road With respect to its economy and its military size.</p> Asghar Ullah Khan Zain Ul Abiden Malik Hani Fatima Malik Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Social Research Development 2021-06-14 2021-06-14 5 2 87 95 10.53664/JSRD/02-01-2021-09-87-95 IMPACT OF MODERATE INTENSITY AEROBIC EXERCISES UPON BODY COMPOSITION OF COLLEGE GIRLS <p>This experimental study aimed to investigate impact of moderate intensity aerobic exercises upon Body Composition of college girls. The experimental research method was adopted for current study with longitudinal approach i.e., pre-test and post-test. 40 participants were taken as a population and were randomly divided into two groups, experimental and Control group. Eight-week moderate intensity aerobic exercises were given to experimental group. After the completion of eight-week exercise protocol the data of Body composition, data of pretest and posttest was recorded and analyzed using paired sample t test and ANOVA to check the difference between the body composition score of girls in pre-test and post-test. It was found that there is significant impact of Moderate intensity aerobic exercises upon the post-test of experimental group. The results provides significant information in deciding the relationships among the research variables in order to reach the conclusion.</p> Fouzia Nawaz Muhammad Safdar luqman Muhammad Asghar Khan Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Social Research Development 2021-06-14 2021-06-14 5 2 29 40 10.53664/JSRD/02-01-2021-03-29-40 GENDER DIFFERENCES AND AGGRESSION: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF YOUNG AND ADULT ATHLETES <p>This comparative study was adopted to compare the level of the aggression among young and adult athletes and gender differences in aggression. The subjects were N=120 (Male=66 &amp; Female 54) athletes from the different colleges, universities and sports clubs in Faisalabad, the age range of young athletes 12 to 18 years and adult athletes age between 20 to 30 years part of the sample. Buss &amp; Perry Aggression scale was used to measure aggression and reliability of scale (Cornbrash’s Alpha = 0.814). Results of multivariate analysis of the varia (Independent T-Test) T=9.02 p&lt;0.03 Percent shows the difference between young and adults’ athletes’ aggressive behavior, Male athlete score high on the aggression scale rather than female. There is the significant aggression difference between male and female athletes in sports. Male athletes are more aggressive as compare female athletes (T=9.86, P&lt;0.02) in aggression.</p> Alia Habib Ullah Sundus Iftikhar Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Social Research Development 2021-06-14 2021-06-14 5 2 49 53 10.53664/JSRD/02-01-2021-05-49-53 IMPACT OF CORPORATE GOVERNANCE ON FIRM PERFORMANCE: EVIDENCE FROM PAKISTAN <p>The study attempts to figure out the relationship between the performance of the firms and corporate governance in Pakistan. Governance mechanisms used in this study are CEO duality, Independence of Board, Size of Board, and Ownership Concentration. While, the ROA and ROE have been used as dependent variables to measure the performance of firms. Using regression analysis technique on 10 listed firms trading over four years from 2014-2017, the results have been derived. The data regarding all the variables have been collected from all the companies’ annual reports. The discoveries of the study direct that fundamentals of corporate governance such as the Size of the Board, Ownership, and Duality Concentration of CEO have negative effects on performance of organization, as measured by ROA and ROE. While Board independence positively affects the performance of firms. The results are thus significant and provide valuable information for the decision makers about the research issues under consideration.</p> Feryal Zafar Shaheera Munir Muhammad Saqib Khan Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Social Research Development 2021-06-14 2021-06-14 5 2 16 28 10.53664/JSRD/02-01-2021-02-16-28 THE ISLAMIC VS CONVENTIONAL BANKS: AN EVIDENCE ON THE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT <p>This paper highlights how financial and conventional bank system contribute to economic growth. As the Islamic banking system is grounded on shariah’s laws and Usury/RIBA (interest) are prohibited in Islam so there will be no tax shield in this banking system and they have to pay more tax as compared to the conventional banking system. By analyzing their performance and using the gross value-added contribution of both banking systems was observed. Six banks are selected for this purpose of which 3 Islamic banks i.e. Dubai. It is quantitative research so different ratios are used to examine both banking system performance and gross value added to give us information that to what extend both banking systems are contributing to the economy. In an examination, it has been exposed that both banking systems are conducive much to economy as conventional banks are developed their infrastructure is bigger than Islamic banks where Islamic banks just start near past a few years back.</p> Muhammad Saqib Khan Shaheera Munir Ammara Mujtaba Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Social Research Development 2021-06-14 2021-06-14 5 2 68 81 10.53664/JSRD/02-01-2021-07-68-81 TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP AND OCCUPATIONAL STRESS: MEDIATING ROLE OF ORGANIZATIONAL POLITICS <p>The stress is main issue that affects the individuals’ life from each dimension like their social and professional lives. The occupational stress is employee anxieties and worries about his/her work which is basically the outcome of the various dynamic issues like the working environment, the working load and poor relationships with colleagues and immediate supervisor/leadership. Leadership is important concept whose main role is to inspire the followers/ employees towards attainment of certain well-defines and clear objectives. For this purpose, the leaders use different styles to motivate their employees by considering their needs and resolving their worries at workplaces in which leadership styles (transformational and transactional) is most comprehensive package for employees’ motivation and performance leading to stressless situation at workplace. The results of this study revealed that both leaders’ main responsibility is to encourage followers by using their main attributes to attain institutional aims by offering the suitable and friendly environment where they can contribute freely and deliver effectively efforts and potential by eliminating the politics.</p> Shahid Nawaz Akbar Zaman Shaukat Ullah Khan Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Social Research Development 2021-06-14 2021-06-14 5 2 54 67 10.53664/JSRD/02-01-2021-06-54-67 IMPACT OF H-PERFORMANCE W-SYSTEM ON EMPLOYEE S’ PERFORMANCE: MEDIATING ROLE OF PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTRACT BREACH <p>The high-performance work system is leading phenomenon that acts as the compact package comprising different human resource practices that are used widely as group of different practices and as a compact phenomenon thereby amalgamating the entire practices in single package known as high-performance work-system. The HPWS is important and effective for all the organizations in modern viable situations. This system allows organizations including HEIs to get desired performance over a compact system to attain the desired short-term tasks and long-term objectives. This system helps in defining parameters that are dynamic in attaining desired performance of employees and institutions. The employees’ performance is most effective phenomenon leading to employees’ actual potential and the efforts towards the task achievement. The existing literature offered different factors and issues that can disturb linkages among HPWS and employees’ performance. This study offered significant results by using psychological contract breach as mediator.</p> Akbar Zaman Shahid Nawaz shaukat ullah Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Social Research Development 2021-06-14 2021-06-14 5 2 1 15 10.53664/JSRD/02-01-2021-01-1-15 THE EFFECTS OF COACHING BEHAVIOR ON THE EFFECTIVE PERFORMANCE OF ATHLETE’S <p>This study was arranged to explore the Effects of coaching behavior upon athlete performance. There were 156 Athletes selected for a sample through non-probability convenient sampling technique and used survey research design. A Coaching Behavior Scale for the sport, (CBS-S, Mallet, 2006) was administered to collect data and data was analyzed using SPSS-17. The result of the study indicated that coaching behavior affect athlete performance with all dimensions of the coaching behavior scale is significantly. This study concluded that athlete increase performance physical training and training 46.4%, mental preparation 53.6%, technical skills 54.5% and goal setting 44.6% with positive coaching behaviors. Keep in sight the result of this study, it is consigned those higher authorities may focus or promote supportive climate to coach to enhance the athlete performance. The study provides the significant information in facilitating the decision making about the effective behavior of the Athletes</p> Habib Ullah Khan Alia Sundus Iftikhar Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Social Research Development 2021-06-14 2021-06-14 5 2 82 86 10.53664/JSRD/02-01-2021-08-82-86 DOES THE RECIPROCAL RELATIONSHIP OF THE WORKPLACE BULLING AND ORGANIZATIONAL JUSTICE IN BANKS OF LAHORE? <p>The purpose of this study is to examine relationship of workplace bullying and organizational justice in banking sector, Lahore. Research concentrated on workplace bullying and its 5 dimensions and organizational justice and its 4 dimensions. Banking sector chooses to conduct this current study. Simple random sampling technique was applied to choose 300 respondents from 28 banks situated in Lahore (Pakistan). The organizational justice and workplace bulling both has reciprocal impact on each other. The organizational justice has more prominent impact on workplace bulling as compare the impact of workplace bulling on the organizational justice. The study provides significant information about the relationships among research variables which further help in reaching the conclusion of the study. The results provide significant information about the relationships among research variables in reaching the conclusion of study and offering certain recommendations to the concerned stakeholders and policy makers. &nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Fakhar Zaman Hafiza Munam Zarish Sofia Safder Copyright (c) 2021 2021-04-16 2021-04-16 5 2 221 233 10.53664/JSRD/01-02-2020-10-221-233 AN INVESTIGATION ON THE VOTERS TRUST ON PAKISTAN GENERAL ELECTION 2018 <p>The research study was conducted to examine favorite political party and the people’s perception about outcomes of general elections 2018. Researcher drawn 400 sample from population of district Dera Ismail Khan using non-probability sampling technique through Curry &amp; Dr. John in 2007 method for sample selection. The researcher used the convenient sampling techniques for the data collections. The study adopted the cross-sectional survey research method with closed-ended questionnaire for measuring concept. The results revealed that there is significant relationship between favorite political party and public perceptions about current government. The study is expected to provide suitable contribution to existing database of knowledge about the issues under considerations in this research. Study is also expected to offer valuable recommendation as extracted from the results of the current study for the general public and policy makers. &nbsp;</p> Shahid Ullah Asghar Ullah Khan Muhammad Imran Khan Copyright (c) 2021 2021-04-16 2021-04-16 5 2 212 220 10.53664/JSRD/01-02-2020-09-212-220 DIGITAL TECHNOLOGIES FOR ONLINE HIGHER-EDUCATION: THE CREATORS AND KILLERS OF DIGITAL DIVIDES <p>The digital technologies have gained continuous momentum during the last decades in emerging economies. Contemporary world is divided into ‘haves’ and ‘have-nots’ on the basis of access to information and communication technologies (ICTs) mainly internet. This is called digital-divide: classification of the global-community into digitally literate and illiterate citizens. ICTs are said to be the main cause of this problem however the same technologies offer opportunities to not only bridge the digital divide but also improve life particularly, higher-education. This paper brings together the experience and viewpoints of researchers about the definition, causes, ICT-based solutions and hurdles in implementing online higher education in the universities to manage digital-divides in the developing countries. Based on the literature about the digital technologies and its application in the different spheres, it is argued that ICTs are not threats rather the opportunities provided they are harnessed in tune with the human and non-human contexts of the higher education in Pakistan.&nbsp;</p> Allah Nawaz Abid Hussain Aamir Sohail Copyright (c) 2021 2021-04-16 2021-04-16 5 2 201 211 10.53664/JSRD/01-02-2020-08-201-211 THE TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP AND OCCUPATIONAL STRESS: THE MEDIATING ROLE OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE <p>The relationship between occupational stress and transformational leadership is mainly influenced by some factors wherein some contribute positively while some contributes negatively. From positive limits, the emotional intelligence is most effective factor which contribute in connection between occupational stress and transformational leadership. The researcher main contribution is the careful selection of the research variable and results that were based upon opinion of respondents concerning research variables. Both secondary and primary data were used to conduct, study, where secondary data was collected from the related articles on variables and primary data, was collected through questionnaires adapted from the previous studies. Through different tools of statistics (correlation, regression &amp; mediation), collected data was analyzed to obtain answers to research questions (hypotheses). Results are significant and provide suitable information about the research variables to add values to existing research database.</p> Shahid Nawaz Muhammad Tahir Akbar Zaman Copyright (c) 2021 2021-04-16 2021-04-16 5 2 187 200 10.53664/JSRD/01-02-2020-07-187-200 EXPLORING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ORGANIZATIONAL SUPPORT AND EMPOYEE OUTCOMES- A CASE OF SERVICE SECTOR <p>The purpose of this research is to analyze significance of the organizational support in managing employees’ job satisfaction, motivation and turnover intention in banking sector of Pakistan. As banking sector of Pakistan is the major contributor towards economic growth and development. Further these variables are analyzed by taking the case of Lahore which is the 2nd largest city of Pakistan based on its contribution toward total population of country. By using simple random sampling technique list of branches were chosen as sample from public and private banks. The data was collected through self-administered structured questionnaire. 400 questionnaires were distributed to top, middle level managers. 360 were received filled. 347 questionnaires were used for the analysis quoting response rate of 87%. Results validate the proposed relationship. The study concluded that the perceived organization support holds value among employees as it is found that in the presence of support, they remain satisfied, motivated and stick to banks.</p> Aiza Hussain Rana Nimra Kafeel Zaeem Ahmad Copyright (c) 2021 2021-04-16 2021-04-16 5 2 177 186 10.53664/JSRD/01-02-2020-06-177-186 THE EFFECTS OF MODERATE INTENSITY AEROBIC EXERCISES UPON HEART RECOVERY OF COLLEGE GIRLS <p>The existing stud was aimed to observe effects of moderate intensity aerobic exercises upon heart recovery of college girls. The study was experimental by using longitudinal data collection approach i.e., pre-test and post-test. Total participants in study were 40. The selected population was randomly being divided into two groups, “experimental and control group”. The experimental group gained special treatment for a period of 8 weeks. The heart beat was checked through Radial artery which is easily felt on thumb side of the wrist of arm. For radial artery, three fingers of hand used. After the completion of eight-week exercise protocol data of RHR the data of pretest and posttest was recorded and analyzed “using paired sample t test” to see the difference between the RHR score of girls in pre-test and post-test. It was concluded that the “there is significant impact of Moderate intensity aerobic exercises upon Resting” Heart Rate. Study provides significant information in reaching the conclusion of the current research study.</p> Fouzia Nawaz Muhammad Safdar Luqman Afsha Jabeen Copyright (c) 2021 2021-04-16 2021-04-16 5 2 166 176 10.53664/JSRD/01-02-2020-05-166-176 THE EFFECTS OF SOCIAL MEDIA ON POLITICAL AWARENESS: CASE OF DERA ISMAIL KHAN DISTRICT <p>This research study was conducted to measure people rely more on social media will have more knowledge about their favorite political party than the users of other types of media. Scholar drawn 400 sample from population of district Dera Ismail Khan using non-probability sampling technique through Curry &amp; John in 2007 method for the sample selection. The researcher used convenient sampling techniques for the data collections. The study adopted cross sectional survey research method with the closed-ended questionnaire. The initial descriptive analysis shows that PTI supporters comprised majority of the portion of the sample in this study, compared to the supporters of the other parties and independent candidates, and also majority of respondents used television as source for political information. Similarly, the supporters of political parties and their reliance on media have significant relationship. The results offered significant information in reaching conclusion and thereby producing the desired outcomes.</p> Muhammad Imran Khan Shahid Ullah Asghar Ullah Khan Copyright (c) 2021 2021-04-16 2021-04-16 5 2 155 165 10.53664/JSRD/01-02-2020-04-155-165 ASSESSMENT OF E-HRM PRACTICES AND ITS FUNCTIONS AMONG BANKING SECTOR OF EMERGING ECONOMIES <p>Investigating the emerging role of E-HRM practices among banking sector is a central tenet of study. It examines E-HRM practices and its determinants by impending Managerial level employees of banking sector of Pakistan, one of emerging economies. The researchers used a qualitative research “method approach to document responses of target audience. Ten Semi-structured interviews were conducted to explore” the central practices, functions, and determents associated with role of E-HRM practices of corporate banking managerial level employees. For analytical purposes, Nvivo 10 software was used. The findings of the results indicate that recruitment, selection, training, Job opening, mobile banking, fintech, TRSM, motivation, communication task completion, and Bank performance are major factors which are directly influenced by E-HRM. Practically, this research might be able to offer new understandings for the banking employees, policymakers, bank management and potential employees, helping them to understand the effectiveness of electronic Human Resource management practices.</p> Aamir Sohail Abid Hussain Adil Riaz Copyright (c) 2021 2021-04-16 2021-04-16 5 2 144 154 10.53664/JSRD/01-02-2020-03-144-154 THE STUDY ON MPACT OF WORKPLACE BULLING ON THE ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT <p>The purpose of current study is to explore the relationship of organizational commitment, verbal bullying and direct bullying in the banking sector of Lahore. Organizational commitment has been found to a serious problem in these days for all organization. This research concentrated on organizational commitment and two types of bullying i.e., physical and verbal bulling. The banking sector chose to conduct this current study. Because banking sector is considered as one of the extremely stressful sectors in Pakistan and it has great share in the economy. Simple random sampling technique was applied to choose 300 respondents from 28 banks located in Lahore (Pakistan). the structure questionnaire was utilized to gather the data. 270 fully completed questionnaires were used in the final analysis. Multiple linear regression was applied through SPSS to test the hypotheses.&nbsp; Overall workplace bullying has negative influence on organizational commitment. Moreover, two dimensions like the verbal bullying and direct bullying has the negative influence on the organizational commitment.</p> Hafiza Munam Zarish Muhammad Zulqarnain Zaeem Ahmad Copyright (c) 2021 2021-04-16 2021-04-16 5 2 129 143 10.53664/JSRD/01-02-2020-02-129-143 THE IMPACT OF HIGH-PERFORMANCE WORK SYSTEM ON THE EMPLOYEES’ PERFORMANCE: MEDIATING ROLE OF EMPLOYEES RESILIENCE <p>The high-performance work system, employees’ performance and resilience are the critical success factors for any organization. To examine the concepts in native environment, the data was collected from different sources likewise, secondary from online databases while primary through questionnaire. The population of study comprises teaching faculty working in HEIs in southern region, KP, Pakistan. Literature was analyzed by comparing and examining the views of diverse researchers on matters under study while first hand data was analyzed over statistical procedure (correlation, &amp; regression) to observe linkages amid research variables. Mediation procedure was used to inspect mediating role of employees’ resilience. Results offer significant information about the relationships among variables like positive association, significant impact, and partial mediation. This study is likely to offer new literature, new methods and new implications for management of concerned institutions. Therefore, study in general may contribute in existing knowledge database and in specific to researcher in achieving the desired objectives behind the conduction of this particular research study.</p> Akbar Zaman Shahid Nawaz Shaukat Ullah Khan Copyright (c) 2021 2021-04-16 2021-04-16 5 2 115 128 10.53664/JSRD/01-02-2020-01-115-128 AN INVESTIGATION ON THE DETERIORATING SECURITY SITUATIONS OF THE PAKISTAN <p>Security plays a very important role in the progress of a nation. It is the pillar of a state on which a nation stands. Without security it is very difficult for a nation to survive on the map of world. Since Pakistan joined the U.S.-led war on terror in September 2001, stability has been heavily affected, and Pakistan has faced many stability challenges since then. With the participation in the “war on terror, the security situation in country” deteriorated within the few years, as army had to carry out a number of operations in its territory against its own people with the aim to disregard the terrorist threat. The war against terrorism has significantly impacted on the overall economic as well as social development of the country. Incidents of 9/11 have divided the nation into American supporters, both pro and unfavorable. Pakistan, the United States helping ally faces more negative security values rather than optimistic ones. This paper addresses Pakistan’s security woes and reasons for the country's worsening security situation. To bring stability to Pakistan, the government needs to take plan to conquer its people' hearts and minds.</p> Zain Ul Abiden Malik Hani Fatima Aleen Fatima Copyright (c) 2021 2021-04-16 2021-04-16 5 2 105 114 10.53664/JSRD/01-01-2020-10-105-114 ASSESSMENT OF INDIVIDUAL AND INSTITUTIONAL INVESTOR’S INVESTMENT BEHAVIOR DURING COVID-19: A CASE OF EMERGING ECONOMY <p>In study of stock investment in the capital market by investors in Pandemic Covid-19, it is always carried out rationally. Decisions on stock investments are not always rational. main purpose of research is to analyze behavioral factors that affect preferences of individual’s investors and fund managers in emerging stock market, Pakistan Stock Exchange. The data of this research were “collected through semi-structured interviews with five fund managers and five individual investors” from Pakistan Stock Exchange. The researchers used thematic analysis for data interpretation. The major findings stress that retail investors are more effected by behavioral biases in comparison with fund managers. The results shows that there are some major biases which are affecting both type of investors like overconfidence-gambling, herding, market, prospect, errors and anchoring-ability bias. Data for this study was collected for one time only, for better understanding data may be collected for more than one time in future. Triangulation method may be directed in future for further clarification in existing study.</p> Aamir Sohail Abid Hussain Farhad Hussain Copyright (c) 2021 2021-04-16 2021-04-16 5 2 93 104 10.53664/JSRD/01-01-2020-09-93-104 AN EXPLORATORY STUDY ON THE DYNAMICS OF RELIGIOUS EXTREMISM IN PAKISTAN <p>Although domestic terrorism has long been a global threat, many countries have only just started developing systemic policies to tackle the root causes of religious extremism. Studying front-line countries like Pakistan is critical to understanding how to tackle the challenge effectively. Despite Pakistan's war with anti-government rebels like Pakistani Taliban, Pakistan has struggling for more than decade to resolve theoretical aspects of those problems. Since the key majority of nefarious activities in Pakistan are carried out by entities that promote religion and justify Islam. It is vital that extremist drivers should be eliminated from Pakistan and other countries. We understand theological element. Ethnic minorities have targeted and harassed often by the religious fundamentalist groups for years. Unless the state avoids this trend, state will soon base itself on the prevailing narrative of extremism; it will only provide Sunni living space while restricting the limits of religious beliefs of minorities and living as free citizens. Most sensitive issue of Pakistan national security is extremism.</p> Asghar Ullah Khan Zain Ul Abiden Malik Hani Fatima Copyright (c) 2021 2021-04-16 2021-04-16 5 2 85 92 10.53664/JSRD/01-01-2020-08-85-92 THE GENDER BASED COMPARATIVE STUDY ON PERCEPTION OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION INSTRUCTORS ABOUT JOB PERFORMANCE <p>The present comparative study was conducted to observe the difference in stance of male and female Instructors’ Physical Educations (IPEs) regarding their Job Performance. A sample of 79 IPEs was selected over proportionate random sampling techniques to confirm the equal representation. For this drive, the self-made job performance scale was used for the data collection which was analyzed through independent sample t-test were used to find out the mean difference in perception of IPEs. The result of study showed that the difference in the stance of IPEs regarding their job performance is significant. Female IPEs performed better as compared to the male IPEs. The results are significant and expected to provide suitable guidelines to policy-makers of the concerned context regarding the physical education instructors about their job performance.</p> Safdar Luqman Zia Ul Islam Afshan Jabeen Copyright (c) 2021 2021-04-16 2021-04-16 5 2 78 84 10.53664/JSRD/01-01-2020-07-78-84 IMPACT OF AUDIO-VISUAL AIDS ON TEACHING LEARNING PROCESS OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE AT PRIMARY LEVEL <p>English is an international language and plays a pivotal role in our education system that is why different methods are used for English language teaching learning process at primary level to improve learning teaching process, that is why the present study was conducted to highlight the audio-visual aids’ role in process of teaching learning at the level of primary education. All the teachers and head teachers of Southern Districts Primary schools in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa were study population. The study sample consisted of 100 head-teachers (50 female and 50 male) and 300 teachers (150 males &amp; 150 females). By nature, the study was survey, researcher developed personally instrument to collect data from respondents and thus analyzed, tabulated, and construed the data in the light of study objectives. The statistical tools like mean and SD were used for data analysis. The present study highlighted that audio visual aids make the learners able learn English language easily and in an interested way.</p> Irfan Ullah Khan Muhammad Saqib Khan Haroon Rehan Copyright (c) 2021 2021-04-16 2021-04-16 5 2 71 77 10.53664/JSRD/01-01-2020-06-71-77 AN INVESTIGATION ON THE POLITICAL RHETORIC AS A FACTOR OF VOTERS’ PERSUASION <p>This research study explores the relationship between political agenda of the political leaders and parties in Pakistan and public agenda of the residents of Dera Ismail Khan District during election 2018. This study is important and helpful in understanding political landscape in Pakistan and role of political rhetoric in shaping that landscape. This study helped in understanding how voters decided to participate in elections and what are vital for audience during elections campaign. Researcher has drawn 400 samples from target population while using convenient sampling techniques for data collections. The study adopted cross sectional survey research design with closed-ended questionnaire for measuring public agenda and perception while coding sheet was used for measuring political rhetoric of leaders of diverse political parties. Study findings indicate that there is significant difference between political parties about different hot issues in Pakistan. The study results show that there was no significantly influence of the party affiliation on audiences’ political behavior.</p> Shahid Ullah Asghar Ullah Khan Muhammad Imran Khan Copyright (c) 2021 2021-04-16 2021-04-16 5 2 60 70 10.53664/JSRD/01-01-2020-05-60-70 THE FAMILY AS A SOCIAL INSTITUTION AND ITS ROLE IN THE PROMOTION OF SPORTS <p>Family is first social institutions where an individual opens his eyes observe and learn. That is why family is considered most influential factor in shaping a child’s future. The study in hand was carried out in the vicinity of district Dera Ismail khan, KP, Pakistan. It was tried to probe the role of family in sense of social institutions and its role in promotion of sports. As it is a vivid fact that family has a key role in shaping future of child. The prime objective of study was to investigate the role of family (guardians) in the promotion and development of sports. 600 families (guardian) participated in this study and contacted by researcher for purpose of data collection. A valid and reliable questionnaire was used for data collection. Data was organized in Microsoft excel. Percentage formula was applied to measure perception of respondent regarding different questions. Furthermore, one sample analysis was used to check the hypothesis. Majority of the people agreed with that issue. After the analysis of data, it was concluded that family has a key role in the promotion of sports.</p> Faheem Ullah Khan Zia Ul Islam Afshan Jabeen Copyright (c) 2021 2021-07-27 2021-07-27 5 2 46 59 10.53664/JSRD/01-01-2020-04-46-59 THE SOCIAL MEDIA SHAPING BRAND CONSCIOUSNESS AND THE PURCHASE INTENTION OF FASHION CONSUMERS <p>This study was designed to explore the role of the social media in brand consciousness and purchase intention of young and old fashion consumers. Social media has significant impact on the consumers as individual. The major purpose of this research was to gain in the depth information of social media. Phenomenological research design was used to explore the view point of the young and old fashion consumers regarding the impact of the social media towards brand consciousness and purchase intention. Data for this research was collected from hundred participants between the range of 18 to 30 and 31 to 50 years. The researcher gathered information from the students of a private university, school teachers and business men. We found out that on average most of the users spend 1 to 6 hours on the social media each day. Fashion consumers of young age group are more brand conscious because they are more motivated to purchase the clothes that have branded names or logos.</p> Zainab Shafaat Farzana Kishwa Abdul Khaliq Alvi Copyright (c) 2021 2021-07-27 2021-07-27 5 2 30 45 10.53664/JSRD/01-01-2020-03-30-45 THE EFFECTIVENESS OF EXISTING PHYSICAL EDUCATION CURRICULUM AT THE DEGREE LEVEL <p>Study was conducted to assess effectiveness of physical education curriculum at college level in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The population consisted twenty-seven physical education teachers and five hundred and thirteen physical education students who selected from nine randomly selected districts. Survey technique was used for collection of required information. Appropriate questionnaire on Likert scale “ranged from very much to Not at all, was developed” and used after pilot testing over sampled respondents from colleges adopting Cronbach Alpha reliability method. The respondents’ responses were analyzed through SPSS. Statistical techniques were used for data analyses. Data have revealed that almost all respondents had agreed upon significance and effectiveness of existing health and physical education curriculum in growth and improvement of personality, good personal habits, and maintenance of physical fitness. But unfortunately, change of social learning skills among students was rejected by concerned population. Study offered significant results in reaching conclusion and extracted suitable recommendations.</p> Sohail Roman Wasim Khan Mehreen Saba Copyright (c) 2021 2021-07-27 2021-07-27 5 2 18 29 10.53664/JSRD/01-01-2020-02-18-29 IMPACT OF WORK FAMILY CONFLICT AND JOB STRESS ON UNIVERSITY TEACHERS’ JOB SATISFACTION AND TURNOVER INTENTIONS: MEDIATING ROLE OF JOB BURNOUT <p>The idea behind this research is to empirically examine relationship between causes (Work-Family Conflict &amp; Job Stress) and consequences (Job Satisfaction &amp; Turnover Intention) of Job Burnout along with its mediating effects in higher educational context of Punjab, Pakistan. The professors, associate professors, assistant professors and lecturers that belongs to different universities in province Punjab of Pakistan were targeted population. Structured and self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the data from six hundred and ten teachers. SEM (Structural Equation Modeling) was used to analyze data. The current study concludes significant relationships between all the aforesaid causes and consequences of Job Burnout except relationship between Job Satisfaction and Job Stress. Furthermore, Job Burnout portrayed its mediating effects between them. This study imparts the management and administration of the higher education institutions in uncovering and eliminating the harms of Job Burnout.</p> Hakim Ali Mahesar Naveed Iqbal Chaudhry Zain Rasool Copyright (c) 2021 2021-07-27 2021-07-27 5 2 1 17 10.53664/JSRD/01-01-2020-01-1-17